Some Suggestions for a Reform Methodology in Democratic Societies -- Hyo-chong Park

ISSS Meeting at Asilomar, June 28-July 2, 1999 
  • Paper Session, June 29, 1999, 2:50 p.m., chaired by Arne Collen 
These participant's notes were created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker's presentation(s) and comments from the audience. These should not be viewed as official transcripts of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. These notes have been contributed by David Ing ( at the IBM AdvancedBusiness Institute ( ).

Hyo-chong Park 

  • Teach political science at the Seoul National University 
Democracy produces surprises, ..., emergent properties. 
  • Counter to political parties after election. 
  • Reform process is dissipative self-organization. 
Policy implications: 
  • Reform process is an intervention by parties who have won elections. 
Kenneth Arrow's impossibility theorem: No social transitive ordering. 
  • The paradox of voting. 
Prigogine: Order through procreation.

Rhee, Bailey, Luhmann believe that dissipative structure applies. 

  • Order through dissipative structure. 
  • Termites' nest. 
    • Lumps of earth, dropped randomly. 
    • Deposit hormones. 
    • Lumps can be clustered. 
Model of negative category 
  • Analogy: puzzle piece which can only be placed as part of a whole. 
  • If you want to implement reform, you need to stay away from the soft systems which you want to reform. 
    • Maturana and Varela 
    • The need to retain their own autonomy. 
In childbirth, it's the mother who gives birth, not the midwife. 
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This page was last modified by David Ing on October 6, 2002.