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Section D through G

J. D. R. de Raadt and V. D. de Raadt Systems in Decision making: Tools and Applications

William S, Dockens III Four Brand New Colors
Information Nullification in Psychology and the Humanities

Martine M.E. Dodds Ethics in the Age of Disorder

Doepp, Manfred System Deficiency, Blockage, and Asymmetry in the Human Body:
Diagnosis, Importance, and Consequences

Ely A. Dorsey About Risk, Synergy and Complexity

Vitaly Dubrovsky Beyond Duality:
Application of Cross-attribution to the Concept of Social Norm

Vitaly Dubrovsky Beyond Duality: From Opposition to Cross-Attribution

Marian Lee Dumaine, Individuals Diagnosed with Both Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse: System Misfits

Molly Dwyer Complexity and the Emergent Feminine: A Cosmological Inquiry into the Role of the Feminine in the Evolution of the Universe

Larry Edwards From Mechanism to Spirituality

R. Keith Ellis and Lawrie Reavill Developing Synergistic Technology Change Through Systems Thinking

Ignacio Peon Escalante A critical systemic participatory action-research approach,
for interorganizational network development process toward a holistic and sustainable transformation of communitiesPutting Theory into Action:

Charles A. Fink Developing and Testing a Non-Mathematical Model and Offering It on the Internet

Dennis Finlayson Systems and Development: Past Neglect,
Future Contribution?

Olov Forsgren, Leif Rydén Integrated Services for the Information Society

James Fournier Evolution, Entropy and Work

Charles Francois The possible Obsolescence of the Human Brain
La Posible obsolescencia del Cerebro Humano

Sue Gabriele Boulding's Typology Elaborated: a Theoretical Framework
for Understanding School and Classroom Systems

Savvas D. Georgiades Exploring Primary Yet "Forgotten" Sub-systems in Social Service Delivery: the Case of the Cyprus CitizensThe Missing Link: Duality and Group Behavior

Peggy B. Gill Educational Systemic Change as a Three Dimensional

Kirill Goldstein The Missing Link: Duality and Group Behavior

David Gordon and Hector Sabelli BIOTIC Patterns of Heart Rate Variation in New Born Infants
and their Disruption in Newborns with Severe Congenital illness

Jump to next alphabetical section A to C D to G H to J K to L M to O P to S T to Z


Boulding's Typology Elaborated: a Theoretical Framework
for Understanding School and Classroom Systems

Sue Gabriele

Gabriele Educational Materials & Systems are GEMS
25525 Hardy Place, Stevenson Ranch, California, 91381


The scope of current educational reform themes is wide. Power is shifted from central governments to local, from administrative office to school-site, from principal to teachers; from teacher to students. This is hopeful because traditional reform efforts have been counterproductive.

These new themes parallel a worldwide paradigm shift from monocausal thinking to systems thinking, from viewing organizational relationships as monocausal and top-down regulating to interactive and self-regulating. However, the new themes are also problematic because resulting reform efforts are conflicting, proposing either control or flexibility, which increases harmful outcomes.

This paper elaborates Boulding's typology of system complexity drawing from education and related disciplines. The elaboration unifies conflicting perspectives, and explains why school reforms fail. Agency in change is clarified. The change model that results highlights system adjustment capacities and specifies both control and flexibility: control of externally regulated subsystems for maintaining access to resources of time, materials, equipment and energy; and flexibility in self-regulating subsystems for learning, growth, differentiation.

Thus, a theoretical boundary is transcended. The current theoretical boundary asks the question: "Which is correct, control or flexibility?" It is replaced by an improved question, more useful to guide educational theoreticians and practitioners. The new question is: "Which parts need
control, and which parts need flexibility?"

Keywords: public education, general systems theory, Boulding, cognitive

Educational Systemic Change as a Three Dimensional

Peggy B. Gill
Stephen F. Austin State University
Department of Secondary Education and Educational Leadership
Box 13018 SFA Station
Nacogdoches, Texas 75976
Department of Secondary Education and Educational Leadership
Educational systemic change is a dynamic, complex process. Alternative models of this process provide different perspectives of the recursive and comprehensive nature of change where relationships form and reform interconnecting and unifying diverse subsystems within the school's constructed meaning and purpose. The meaning and purpose delineate the margins within which the spiraling elaboration of the educational change process unfolds and stand as the first general picture of the organizational vision. Capacity building, design, and implementation co-evolve within these margins to produce an envisioned school.

Keywords: Systemic Change, Perspectives, System Design, Capacity Building

The possible Obsolescence of the Human Brain
La Posible obsolescencia del Cerebro Humano

Charles Francois
Honorary President
Argentinian Association of General Systems and Cybernetics (GESI)
Libertad 742, 1640 Martinez
Buenos Aires, Argentina.

In order to work, an hipercomplex network as those of the neurons in the brain, must have two complementary characteristics, though, in some sense opposite.

It must have a high degree of continuous capacity of variation and reorganization. The lack of this would make impossible the capacity of learning and innovation.

On the other hand, this capacity must be restricted and limited for the maintenance of an enough coherence (Ashby).

This outcome is obtained through the organizational closure, that means the progressive construction of reference mental frameworks, through, as well, reinforcement cyclical processes of functional and efficient neuronal circuits (Hebb).

As a result the power of an individual brain is considerable but not unlimited.

In this paper, it is examined what here is called the "stupid artificial intelligence", the "intelligent artificial intelligence", the concept of "artificial life" and "social artificial life" and under these topics some interrogants are presented in respect to the human brain. The paper carries us to reflect on the possibilites for arising the "mentalization of the mineral world" and the possible obsolescence of the human brain, at least in the way it operates nowadays.

Key words: Human brain, obsolescence, artificial life, social artificial life, stupid intelligence, intelligent artificial intelligence, mineral world.


Con el objeto de trabajar, una red hipercompleja, como aquellas de las neuronas que se encuentran en el cerebro, deben tener dos carácterísticas complementarias, aunque en cierto sentido opuestas.

Debe tener un alto grado de capacidad de variación continua y de reorganización. La falta de esto podría hacer imposible la capacidad de aprendizaje e innovación.

Por otro lado, esta capacidad debe estar restringida y limitada para el mantenimiento de una coherencia suficiente (Ashby).

Este resultado se obtiene a través de la clausura organizacional, esto es, mediante la progresiva construcción de marcos de referencia mentales, a través, a su vez, del refuerzo de procesos cíclicos de circuitos neuronales funcionales y eficientes(Hebb).

Como resultado, el poder de un cerebro individual es considerable pero no ilimitado.

En este artículo se examina lo que aquí se denomina ¨inteligencia artificial estúpida¨, ¨inteligencia artificial inteligente¨, los conceptos de ¨vida artificial¨ y de ¨vida artificial social¨ y sobre estos tópicos algunas interrogantes se presentan con respecto al cerebro humano. El artículo nos lleva a la reflexión sobre las posibilidades del surgimiento de la ¨mentalización del mundo mineral¨ y la posible obsolescencia del cerebro humano, por lo menos en la forma cómo opera en nuestros días.

Palabras Clave: Cerebro humano, obsolescencia, vida artificial, vida artificial social, inteligencia estúpida, inteligencia artificial inteligente, mundo mineral.

Four Brand New Colors
Information Nullification in Psychology and the Humanities

William S, Dockens III
Väringavägen 20 tr3
S-193 35 Sigtuna, Sweden

The epistemologies, theories and applications of contemporary science and technology can be collectively and succinctly described as prototypes emerging from a multidisciplinary network. In the new climate, hierarchies either become ephemeral or disappear altogether. Mutual causality becomes the rule rather than the exception. Multidisciplinary and cross cultural cooperation are combining to rapidly replace relatively strict territorial boundaries of the past. Taken in concert, the consequences of these transformations on how information is defined and exchanged are profound.

A primary difficulty is to formulate an approach that is both free of paradigm territoriality and as independent of arbitrary consensus as possible. One solution, a spectrum from common sense through biological and natural sciences, to business, political and military strategy is subjected to a general systems approach that includes problems of conflict, territoriality and compatibility. To minimize arbitrariness, information's problems, their consequences and their solutions are formulated within T. Givón's (1984) approach to syntax provides an optimal division of labor for the search for a generally accepted definition of "information". In addition to presenting a comprehensive picture of syntax, semantics and pragmatics as a unified whole, Givón's formulation of "the time-stability scale of lexical classes" facilitates a non-hierarchical approach essential to applications in both networks and natural environments.

Three major conclusions, first social and cultural factors can nullify clearly demonstrable empirical facts. Second, the "Prisoner's Dilemma" is an artifact of specialization. Finally, a neuro mind pattern has emerged that might serve as a more organic, less mechanical basis for a photo computer system's reasoning.

The Mindscape concept emerges as our link between the objective reality of mathematical biology and the personalities of individuals. Originally formulated by anthropologists to explain irreconcilable differences across cultural and epistemological barriers, this approach takes advantage of game theory connections to integrate the mindscape concept into general systems. The result is a biobehavioral equivalent to "personality theory", an equivalent that may well permit general systems to deliver things only promised by humanist philosophers and psychologists. Mindscape's greatest promise is its contribution to the resolution of conflicts between groups and personalities.

Key words: Information, game theory, Jung, Tai-chi, Syntax, ethnic-psychology.

From Mechanism to Spirituality

Larry Edwards
1855 Branciforte Dr.
Santa Cruz, CA 95065 USA

The world view of many, perhaps most, of the people in our western culture today is some combination of a belief in a lawful universe and a belief in a transcendent realm where entities of power exist who interact with the physical world in a variety of ways. Scientists, almost by definition, believe in a lawful universe but may differ widely in their belief as to the source of those laws, that is, whether the laws arise spontaneously within the physical nature of the universe or are imposed from the transcendent realm.

Over the last few centuries the rise of the power of science and especially of its handmaidens technology and industry occurred within the assumptions of a universe that is not only lawful but also reductionistic, deterministic, predictable, that is, controllable. This view was, and still is, set within the wider context of the western world view in which the scientists as people lived. These broader assumptions include: a radical discontinuity between the human and the non-human; a split between spirit (or mind) and matter; a license for indiscriminant use of the non-human world; an assignment of value to the non-human world according to its usefulness to humans; and, increasingly, the ability to live within two contradictory sets of knowledge.

The result of the impressive technical progress within this world view is that today most people in the western culture and even many scientists hold to several basic assumptions about the universe which are inconsistent with the latest scientific understandings of how the universe and particularly
the Earth actually do function.

One of the key misunderstandings concerns the irreversibility of time. Within classical physics, relativity, and quantum mechanics (excepting the collapse of the wave function) time is a parameter that can be positive or negative. Time is reversible. The most popular explanation, put forth originally by Boltzmann, asserted that time was reversible for interactions at the fundamental level, but that, as the complexity of a system increased, processes becomes irreversible. The underlying view is that time is really reversible but appears irreversible in macrosystems. A famous quote of Einstein to this effect is “Time is an illusion.” It is interesting that within most religious orientations the dynamics of the transcendent realm, which are normally considered primary, are often independent of, that is transcendent to time.

On the contrary within thermodynamics, and biological as well as non-biological evolution there is a definite arrow of time. Now physics is undergoing a rethinking of the question. Starting in the mid-60’s particle physicists started suspecting that time, indeed, was not reversible at the fundamental level. Last year in independent experiments at CERN and Fermilab this was observed experimentally.

When time is understood as irreversible a very different understanding of the development of the universe emerges which, combined with the insights of chaos theory, opens the possibility for a reconciliation of the mechanistic and spiritual approaches to understanding the world we live in.

Beyond Duality:
From Opposition to Cross-Attribution

Vitaly Dubrovsky
Clarkson University, Potsdam
New York 13699-5795
dubrovvj@ clarkson.edu

Following the "activity approach", this paper interprets duality as a basic theoretical construct and a fundamental logical principle of opposition, common to all historical times and cultures. Aristotle was the first to recognize the role of opposition in ontological construction and formulated main principles of opposition. Aristotle was also the first who made a gigantic step beyond opposition and created a method of ontological construction, which permitted him to develop his philosophy and paved the road for further development of philosophy and science. We call this method cross-attribution of opposites. Although Aristotle did not formulate principles of cross-attribution (except of a few principles related to intermediates between the opposites), he did use the method over and over again in his work. Normative reconstruction of cross-attribution is the main purpose of this paper.

The main material used in our analysis, is the book of Metaphysics, which is the most difficult and controversial among Aristotle's works (Bambrough, 1963). To deal with the difficulties, this paper relies on existing interpretations of Aristotle's ontology (Ross, 1924; 1930; Asmus, 1976; and Copleston, 1993) and Losyev's (1975) terminological analysis. Taking into consideration the extreme complexity of Aristotle's ontological constructs, this paper limits its scope of analysis to the triplet of Substance, Form, and Matter and their relationships, which are central to Aristotle's ontology. The paper tests the following hypothesis:

1.In his ontological construction, behind the scene of dialectical inquiry, Aristotle consistently followed his principles of opposition and construction of intermediates.
2.The four types of opposition defined by Aristotle (possession-privation, contraries, relatives, and contradictories) are not independent and optional, but are required stages of ontological construction, and, therefore, must be mutually congruent (Dubrovsky, 1996). In other words, we assume that in his ontological construction, Aristotle created four layers of Form-Matter opposition and then applied cross-attribution to the frist three (since "contradictories except no intermediates").
3.There is a general scheme for cross-attribution, common to the three types of opposition.

Our analysis supported all the hypothesis. Aristotle did oppose Form and Matter in all four aforementioned ways and introduced the appropriate intermediates. First, Aristotle opposed definition (form-logos) and indefiniteness ("intelligible" matter) upon the basis of "intelligible substance" as possession and privation, and then introduced potentiality and actuality as the intermediates. Second, he opposed form (morphe) and matter (hyle) upon the basis of "real substance" as contraries, and then introduced "material form" and "formal matter" as the intermediates. Third, he opposed formal cause and material cause upon the basis of "causal substance" and used efficient cause and final cause as the intermediates. Finally, he opposed species (form-eidos) and genus (matter) as contradictories.

Our analysis revealed that all intermediates indeed were constructed in the same way. The core of the method was dialectical interpretation of each member of opposition as an attribute of the other that was considered as a substance (hence "cross-attribution"). The paper presents a complete formal scheme for the method of cross-attribution.

Keywords: duality, opposition, intermediates, cross-attribution.

Complexity and the Emergent Feminine:
A Cosmological Inquiry into the Role of the Feminine in the Evolution of the Universe

Molly Dwyer
California Institute of Integral Studies
31 Bulkley Ave. #2, Sausalito, CA 94965

This paper explores the relationship between the cultural and symbolic aspects of the feminine as they correspond to complexity science and our current understanding of evolution.

Since Aristotle, Western culture has had a predisposition to describe existence in terms of hierarchical dualisms-polar opposites in which preference is granted to one side over the other. The Greeks were entrenched in a patriarchal symbolic order. Aristotle presented a persuasive but distorted view of the feminine that was particularly deleterious. In De Generatione Animalium, he portrayed women as deviations of the generic male who had no active role in the generation of offspring. A woman's womb was merely a vessel for the active, vital and divine male sperm. This attitude is not so different from the Newtonian view of the passivity of space or the classical Darwinian view of the passivity of the biosphere. Nor is this view that different from the attitude modern culture assumes when it sees the earth as little more than a resource to be utilized for the support of human existence. In each case a hierarchical duality is operative-i.e. activity/passivity, culture/nature, intelligible/palpable, creative/receptive-which can be identified with our symbolic renderings of the masculine and feminine.

The linear has been associated with rational thought and with the rigor necessary for good, empirical science. Mythically and culturally, it has been associated with the masculine, and until very recently, was perceived as the standard criterion for understanding scientific truth, against which atypical or abnormal cases were measured. To the feminist thinker, the correlation between the standard, linear case and the Aristotelian contention that the female is an aberration of a standard, masculine case, is indicative of the subtle, but pervasive imbalance still present in our
modern, scientific worldview.

Nonlinearity was-until the introduction of chaos theory and complexity science-relegated to the extraneous, the exotic, the tangential; and yet, nonlinear systems are commonplace. Nonlinearity has been associated with the nonsensical, the qualitative, the unmeasurable, the chaotic, and it has
also been associated with the way women think: in thoughts that meander, rather than directly addressing a point; in intuitive leaps of thinking that have no scientific basis because they can not be adequately measured or analyzed; in the intrinsic sense of interconnectivity that speaks of
nurturing and the creation of family; in the desire for context, complex causality, metaphor and poetics.

Complexity science represents a more receptive, cooperative and interconnected understanding of the underlying dynamics of existence and therefore presents an opportunity to rethink and recreate our cultural and symbolic understanding of the masculine and feminine. By employing it to question our hierarchical biases and examine, with increasing earnestness, those evolutionary attributes symbolically associated with the feminine, we can potentially bring our dualistic thinking into a more life-sustaining balance.

Developing Synergistic Technology Change Through Systems Thinking

R. Keith Ellis and Lawrie Reavill

Management Systems and Information Department,
City University Business School, Walmsley House,
City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK.

Technological change is a powerful and persuasive force in modern society, and has had a significant impact on organisations in both the public and private sector. Technology can provide for synergy in human affairs if, and only if, it is developed in a manner which recognises the systemic impact of technological development.

Technology has a wide ranging impact on human activity, and there is a need to recognise the benefits, consequences, and potential hazards which change can bring. There are many examples of the attempted implementation of technological change which have foundered because the personnel implications were inadequately considered, or even disregarded. Some examples are introduced, and their implications discussed.

This paper will develop a case for relating the synergistic properties associated with technological change by adopting a systems approach. It concludes that such an approach would obviate the side effects of many examples of change based on new technology which are found to have unanticipated disadvantages.

Systems in Decision making: Tools and Applications

J. D. R. de Raadt and V. D. de Raadt
Department of Informatics and Systems Science
Lulea University of Technology
SE 971 87 Lulea, Sweden

The purpose of this session is to present systems ideas at work in the service of people in need. The workshop concerns two applications of multi-modal systems modelling in Sweden and a demonstration of the computer package developed for these applications. The first of these applications is helping a small group of village leaders in Northern Sweden retain their village school and ensure the long-term viability of their village (Rosvik). Village life in Sweden, as in the rest of Europe, is threatened by the rapid concentration of technological and financial power in
industrial mega-centres. People, and especially young people, are drawn away from their villages and small towns depleting them of their human potential and their rich cultural life. The second application concerns a project for unemployed people. Since the fight against unemployment cannot depend any longer upon the ever-growing development of large-scale industry, this project is organising people in the community in self-employment co-operatives. The leaders are using a multi-modal system modeling approach to evaluate, design and manage the project.

Putting Theory into Action:
Developing and Testing a Non-Mathematical Model and Offering It on the Internet

Charles A. Fink
Behavioral Systems Science Organization
P.O. BOX 2051
Falls Church, VA 22042-0051

The first part of this presentation explains the development and testing in the 1970s of a non-mathematical Human Behavior System processing model. Development of model discrete processings, including for emotion, is described; examples of compositing processes and testing them in processing are shown in simulation on an overhead projector. The selection of testing stimuli is discussed. The failed search for a published scientific test for nonmathematical models and the resulting need for testing less precise than assumed mathematical precision are discussed. The resulting use of observer-inferred adequacy of internal, interactive fit in producing observed response as the developmental testing criterion is discussed. And the resulting selection of human usability as the measure for applied use of the model is discussed. The uses of the Freudian concept of "projection" and the computer science concept of "visualization" are discussed. Results of using the model in varying versions of computer display and processing in the 1980s are mentioned. And development in the late 1990s of the current computer display and processing for general self-control of personal behavior self-help on the Internet and in behavioral professionals' and researchers' offices/laboratories is described.

The remainder of this presentation, after orientation by the presenter, allows audience interaction at a computer with the model in the program offered on the Internet for general self-help and in behavioral professionals' and researchers' offices/laboratories. Self-protective legal regulation of the Internet advocated within the U.S. medical community is mentioned.

Evolution, Entropy and Work

James Fournier

California Institute of Integral Studies
1453 Mission Street, San Francisco CA 94103

This paper will examine thermodynamic entropy calculation and the interrelationship between heat flow, entropy and work, as a method of exploring the evolutionary history of living systems on Earth. The principle finding involves the tradeoff between thermodynamic work, and entropy production, whereby it may be demonstrated that entropy production is reduced when a system does work. Input energy that is converted to work does not contribute to increased entropy. Only energy which is irreversibly disbursed as heat to a low temperature sink contributes to increased entropy. Energy which is transformed into work may be stored, most often as chemical potential energy in living systems. Photosynthesizing organisms on Earth have sequestered vast amounts of energy as biomass, fossil fuels, and atmospheric oxygen. A theoretical non-living Earth would instead have reradiated all of that energy into space producing the maximum possible entropy. Therefore, a planet with photosynthesizing organisms produces less entropy.

Even though complex aerobic organisms have steadily increased energy flux density per unit mass through respiration, overall surplus biomass has continued to accumulate, while the atmospheric oxygen level has remained relatively stable. Once work is considered, this trend clearly indicates that organisms are striving for increased energy throughput rather than increased entropy. Accelerated entropy only becomes apparent on Earth following the industrial revolution, as humanity literally burns through the vast hydrocarbon energy reserves accumulated by the planet. This phenomenon more resembles a rip in the fabric of energetic interconnection carefully woven by nature than an extension of the normal functioning of nature. This inversion of a similar imbalance in ancient evolutionary history, which was solved by the advent of respiration, may be rectified through an analog of photosynthesis, namely photovoltaic cells. In general, living systems tend to maximize their access to available energy while minimizing entropy production, striving to be as thermodynamically efficient as possible. We would do well to follow their example.

About Risk, Synergy and Complexity

Ely A. Dorsey
Department of Information Systems And Analysis
Howard University School of Business
2600 Sixth Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20059

Environmental risk (ER) is a probability characteristic linked to the exposure of either the public or the surroundings of the public, including other species of life, to man-made chemicals. ER is posed to answer the question, “What are the chances that a person or another living thing will become sick if exposed to chemical Y or chemicals X, Y, Z ...in various dosages and mixtures?” Many challenges surround ER. There are construct validity difficulties with the definition of ER, the least of which is the meaning of ‘sick.’ Usually, ‘sick,’ means a well known catastrophic disease state, such as cancer or blindness or infertility. Time indexed sickness is not well known, so cumulative assessments of ER are rare if at all. Of course, with appropriate assumptions, one can present a time indexed model of ER linked to a very narrow design. There are also complexity issues in the definition of ER: biological, aesthetic, ecological. The public stakeholder notion of illness plays a role: what does it mean when people just don’t feel well and this is in reality environmentally linked, but not classifiable as a disease? One sees a debate over objectivity between perceived risk and real risk impacting the discussion. There is also a challenge to control of ER between risk assessment and risk management, namely, what is the role of the expert and what is the role of the public in determining ER? The linkage between risk assessment and risk management as a platform for problem resolution is itself questionable as a valid path for both problem definition and problem resolution: are assessment and management independent variables or are they contextually convoluted, and in effect, behaviors of other unspecified variables? Finally, the competitive tugging that various cost benefit positions pose obfuscates two more serious dilemmas: the presumption that science as we know it now can address ER in any real time sense, and the reductionist simplification of enterprise cost boundaries rendering public health costs as externalities. Both notions depend on science and their examination shows that science becomes an impediment to serious policy issues around ER. This paper shows that present science paradigms cannot respond to real time community-worker concerns around synergistic ER issues. With this established, we pose that other paradigms should be considered when addressing ER in real-time.

The Current Scientific Paradigm

Science has strategies or protocols to affirm its epistemic notions, but there is a fundamental structure to all science, viz., the casting of a hypothesis against experimental evidence to see if the status quo remains intact or discarded for what the evidence suggests. Regardless of the particular experimental design, science requires the posing of hypotheses, the construction of an experiment, the collection of data and the analysis of results. If we bring in issues of control, validity and sensitivity, then the protocol grows in complexity. The point is: a scientific experiment as we know it takes time. Time can be truncated using reductionist strategies. But this works only in arenas where there is a well established data base. In the world of synergy, this is not the case. Thus, we ask, “what are the dimensions of the scientific response to synergy?”

In the environmental world, one needs a way to assess in real time the possible danger to humans of a reasonable chemical cocktail exposure. Since we do not know which cocktail will impact the subject, our strategy must be such that any cocktail can be assessed in real time. We will see the difficulties that this challenge poses. We show that this problem is intractable and we pose some different paradigms for assessing synergistic risk. In particular we embrace Second Order Cybernetics as an application of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and using this construct examine a strategy for risk assessment, Risk Processing, whereby all stake holders are induced to make long term commitments to the abatement of risk to workers and communities. Risk Processing is reinforced by the Parity Principle of Environmental Justice and the Rio Principles on Environment and Development, as well as, the Charter of the International Chamber of Commerce on Sustainable Development.

KEY WORDS: Synergy, Complexity, Environmental Justice, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

BIOTIC Patterns of Heart Rate Variation in New Born Infants
and their Disruption in Newborns with Severe Congenital illness

David Gordon and Hector Sabelli
The Heart Institute for Children, Hope Children’s Hospital, Oak Lawn, Ill,
University of Illinois at Chicago Medical Center
and Chicago Center for Creative Development
2400 Lakeview, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Electrocardiographic recordings were obtained from normal newborn infants and patients with severe congenital heart illness not compatible with life longer than one week without surgical intervention. Cardiac beat intervals were measured by R to R interval. Correlation among RR intervals were studied with detrended fluctuation analysis [Peng et al Chaos, 5: 82, 1995], a method that allows one to consider both short and long range correlation behavior in non-stationary time series. In beat interval series recorded from normal newborns, the scaling exponent is near 1, as for pink noise. In contrast to pink noise, there is a crossover phenomenon, as the exponent differs for very short and long fluctuations, reflecting the existence of processes of rise and fall. For patients with extremely severe illness, the scaling component for short range fluctuations lies between 0.5 and 0.7, and the scaling exponent for long range fluctuations are typically 1.2-1.4. Crossover is also noted for biotic time series generated by the process equation At+1 = At + g *sinAt+1 , but not for stationary random, periodic, or chaotic series.
Recurrence quantification [Zbilut and Webber, Physical Letters A, 1992] of RR interval series in both healthy and sick infants, reveals fewer recurrences than shuffled copies. This measure of novelty, absent in chaos, is the trademark of bios. Symmetric Haar wavelet plots [Sprott and Rowlands, Chaos data Analyzer 1995] indicate pink noise-like patterns, as also observed with biotic series.

Complement plots [Sabelli This Meeting] (created by calculating the sine and cosine of each RR interval, plotting them in the XY plane, and connecting each successive point) show a distinct pattern of concentric rings as observed with biotic series. This pattern is globally disrupted in infants with severe congenital heart disease.
In summary, wavelet, recurrence and complement plots, as well as detrended fluctuation analysis, indicate that the biotic pattern of heart rate variation is already developed in many new born infants, and is abolished in newborn infants with severe congenital heart disease.

Individuals Diagnosed with Both
Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse: System Misfits

Marian Lee Dumaine,
Florida International University
School of Social Work
North Miami, Florida 33181

This presentation will examine system barriers to the assessment and treatment Of individuals diagnosed with both schizophrenia and substance abuse. Factors contributing to system barriers include separate funding streams, conflicting ‘directives’ emanating from the medical and ecological models, narrow views of assessment, disparate views of treatment by substance abuse and mental health communities, lack of cross training, biased notions of the dually diagnosed,
as well as conflicting treatment expectations and goals -- all of which is further reinforced by poor treatment responses. The result for the dually diagnosed is a self-defeating spiral intensifying their system misfit status and their failure in treatment, evidenced by homelessness; criminal and suicidal behaviors; and increased risks of HIV infection, medical illness, and early mortality. Although dual diagnosis has been recognized as a major mental health problem in the United States, with substance abuse becoming so prevalent among the mentally ill that its use is assumed, treatment of the dually diagnosed has come to be viewed as a ‘mission impossible’. Suggestions to overcome obstacles to assessment and treatment of the dually diagnosed will be outlined, emphasizing the need for specific system modifications.

Keywords: schizophrenia and substance abuse; system barriers, dual diagnosis

System Deficiency, Blockage, and Asymmetry in the Human Body:
Diagnosis, Importance, and Consequences

Doepp, Manfred,
Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 2 Faber St, Salzburg A
5020, Austria, Tel.: +43 - 662 - 88 65 220

The Traditional Chinese Medicine distinguishes between twelve paired meridians that correspond to twelve organs: lung, large intestine, stomach, spleen- pancreas, heart, small intestine, urine bladder, kidneys, circulation, the triple heater, gall bladder, and liver. The (in the western world) unusual term "triple heater" indicates that the meridians not only represent organs but systems; it is the endocrine system.

Therefore, twelve systems can also be found: immune, lymphatic, pH regulation, vegetative, emotional, mood, sexual, liquid/electrolytes, perfusion, endocrine, fat, and protein metabolism system, thus also containing psychological factors.

These systems can be measured in terms of their energy content with the formerly Russian electro acupuncture device Prognos. The skin resistance of the endpoints of the meridians is inversely related to the system energy. By determining this not only once but several times under different provocation circumstances the regulation and compensation abilities of the body can be determined.

Theoretical basis
If the body is able to deal with information, i.e. if it is able to accept it, to come into resonance with it, and to use it as a support, it is found as an energy increase in the whole body, and especially in the systems involved.

But if the body is unable to use the information for its benefit and only interprets it as stressfull, there will be an overall energy decrease. In this way, the body responds to every stimulation and will classify it as either positive, neutral or negative.

There are three abnormal extreme reaction patterns; a) a high energy deficit, b) a blockage = no reaction, and c) a clear asymmetry between the left and right side. In each case a pathological state of the affiliated system exists, sometimes also of some, and in different ways. A deficiency
means a reduction of the functional reserve capacity with a rapid overload, a blockage means: no ability to change the function according to the demands, and an asymmetry can be interpreted as an early symptom of dysfunction because of a reduced regulation.

The twelve meridians are coupled according to the sequence of the energy flow, and they often show abnormal reactions as couples. Hence, six principle possibilities of the most important malfunctions exist that correspond to six types of psychological disturbances.

1048 patients were investigated. The reasons for the abnormalities were determined by testing different medicines, agents, nosodes, minerals, vitamins, and toxins. Psychological tests were performed in parallel. There have to be distinguished psychological and organic reasons for system

1) Psychological: For every meridians couple (six) there is a basic psychopathological pattern. For every meridian (twelve) a positive attribute was found (e.g. for the immune system: sensitive) which strengthens the system. As a reason for the deficiencies the opposite of the positive attribute (e.g. for the immune system: restless/impatient) and for blockages an exaggeration (e.g. for the immune system: depressive) was found. The most frequent blockage is of the left kidney and is a result of a partnership problem. Asymmetries result from current tendencies. Tables for these relationships are demonstrated. They can also be applied to sociology.

2) Organic: As a cause for a deficiency practically every disease concerning this system can exist. It is important to know the interrelationship between cause and effect, as the cause of a disease is often not located in the area where we observe its effect (e.g. low pancreas enzyme production may result in heart pains). The body always reacts as a whole.

A blockage is usually produced by a focus, such as a dental granuloma, a tooth root treatment, or an inflammation in another part of the body. Scars can also be responsible. The focus must be treated. The body's response to acupuncture is optimal if the system is in asymmetry , as this system has not yet degenerated but is in a reactive phase where the energy flow can be influenced effectively.

With the method described an insight into the body's systems is possible. The analyses of the deficiencies, blockages, and asymmetries lead to valuable diagnoses and therapeutical consequences. As the psychological reasons are most important the psycho-somatic relationships can and have to be taken into consideration. The principles may be applied to social sciences.


Beyond Duality:
Application of Cross-attribution to the Concept of Social Norm

Vitaly Dubrovsky
Clarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13699-5795
dubrovvj@ clarkson.edu


In the previous paper (Dubrovsky, 1996), we demonstrated that Aristotle's analysis of opposition has not only historical interest. We applied it for solving logical problems associated with the concept of norms in contemporary social sciences (Gibbs, 1963; 1990). We showed that the problems resulted from violation of the principles of opposition formulated by Aristotle. We repaired the concept by bringing it to conformance with the principles. The resulting Structural Standard model represents the concept of social norms at the level of opposition of norm and deviance as contraries.



Likewise, Aristotle's method of cross-attribution (Dubrovsky, 1999) has more than historical interest. This paper demonstrates this by application of cross-attribution for further development of the above model. The resulting model is depicted below.

Ideal-Norm Regular Norm Remedied Violation Violation
(ideal norm loosened (remediable violation
Actor’s by tolerance) + remedial act)

Response Norms of Tolerance Norms of Norms of countermand social sanctions
social reward absorbing regular social of social sanctions
and./or response

According to the model, a structural standard of an act comprises of four components: (1) ideal norm (March, 1964; Jackson, 1966) associated with optimal results and norms of social reward; (2) regular norm, or ideal norm loosened by tolerances (Sherif, 1936; Jackson, 1966) and associated with system's absorbing of and/or offsetting for the tolerant deviations, acceptable results, and norms of regular social response; (3) remedied violation, or deviation beyond the tolerance limits which is followed by an appropriate remedial act and associated with prevented system failure and countermand of a negative social sanction (Goffman, 1971); and (4) violation, either remediless deviation or remediable deviation not followed by an appropriate remedial act and associated with system failure and norms of negative sanctioning.

Keywords: opposition, cross-attribution, ideal norm, regular norm, remedied violation, violation.

Systems and Development: Past Neglect,
Future Contribution?

Dennis Finlayson
Centre for Applied Development Studies
Lincoln School of Management
University of Lincolnshire and Humberside
Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TA UK
email: dfinlayson@lincoln.ac.uk

The intention in this paper and the follow up discussion is to offer a naive view of the relationship between systems and development studies with the intention of provoking more interest amongst systems people in the problems of the developing world, or perhaps in the middle of 1999, the ‘nonwesternised’ world.

The views presented are naive because the author is very new to recent systems thinking and is essentially a development practitioner turned university-based trainer, rather than a more conventional academic. Indeed this paper is offered under duress. This discussion to follow is the purpose!

Nonetheless a very brief scan of recent conference contents suggests that, despite the anticipated lack of references to the developing world, there are potential seeds of overlapping interest: if not to be found in the problems then at least in some areas of potential solutions. In this spirit a new approach to working with groups that find themselves in disaster on conflict situations is explored that may have parallels in work in the field of ‘culture and organisation’, for example, which was one of the themes of the 1988 ISSS conference in St. Louis, Missouri.

The approach suggests using the metaphor of ‘character’ or personality for an organisation. Then to identify with the members if that organisation (or set of organisations) the ‘dimensions’ of this character. Then to calibrate this ‘character’ space by locating existing or ideal organisations within the space.

Then to suggest a new location in the space for the existing organisation that would be more appropriate to the situation or problems it faces. The next step is to suggest some (participatory?) exercises that may be useful in improving the organisations ‘mental health’ and finally, to ask how any hoped for improvement might be indicated?

Developing societies, by definition?, are faced with more rapid change and more recurrent and 'festering’ conflict or disaster situations than others. Their ability to respond constructively to such situations could be a way of allowing development in societies, or sections of societies, that habitually resist change. Equally, improvements in their ability to respond constructively could be seen as evidence of ‘greater development’. A developed society is an adaptable society?

Exploring Primary Yet "Forgotten" Sub-systems in Social Service
Delivery: the Case of the Cyprus Citizens

Savvas D. Georgiades
Florida International University
Apt # 358 2800 NE 147 th St. N. Miami FL 33181

Evaluation research examining social service effectiveness and public perceptions of social service delivery on the island of Cyprus is lacking abundantly. At the same time, public appreciation for the scientific rigor of the social work field is at best scarce. Reflections of the dearth of scientific support and sanction for social welfare services in Cyprus can be clearly detected in the present non-hiring policy of social work professors by the University of Cyprus given that no professional social work school is currently in operation to host them.

As with every open system, Social Welfare Organizations (SWOs) are interdependent with their environment. SWOs can not increase resources or improve their position merely by courting recipient support. It therefore becomes imperative that they court favor with service controllers who are located in the environment (Martin & O’Connor, 1991). This mandate for overdifferentiated activity in SWO systems promotes division and an underemphasis of critical SWO subsystems such as their clientele and the public sector. The mono-sided political praxis of SWOs results in a top-down case management approach that distances itself vertically from client and public-based requirements.

To deal with this segmentalism, the present study assesses social service planning, implementation and follow up at the public level in the context of SWOs in Cyprus. Specific aims of the study are the public perceptions of public social welfare services and the identification of public-based solutions to upgrading the quality of these services. This integrative action approach serves as a prelude to and a vivid illustration of a client and public-based empirical inquiry that sustains the openness of the social welfare system in Cyprus and underlines its full interpolative potential. To be a radical change ingredient and a fundamental catalyst for the introduction of a more humanistic social service delivery system in Cyprus, the present inquiry must be complemented and entrenched by homologous, poly-targeted research activities.

Integrated Services for the Information Society

Olov Forsgren, Leif Rydén
Umeå universitet

The paper reflects some ideas in an attempt to establish a European project focusing a radical shift from activity driven to demand driven public administration.

Public service centres such as call centres libraries and one stop shops with the purpose to empower citizens by use of electronic information and service will be transformed into Integrated Service Points supported by an adequate ICT environment.

The project is based on a number of foregoing Swedish and European research and development projects in this direction resulting in existing public portals and one stop shops. Examples are the European Infosond project for public service as well similar ongoing projects in the private sector. The frontline of this development can be found in the bank and insurance sector, but important work has also been done in the travel sector as well as car and transport sectors.

The project contains a number of challenges both technical and administrative. The technical challenge will be the development of an architecture transaction platform for demand driven services. The administrative challenge is the development of integrated service points and the close related development of a new operator service profession. The challenges can be also be summarised in an integrated service model with four main elements.

1.Demand driven multi-channel service to consumers. Face to face, web Tel, fax, etc.
2.Service Development Kit/ToolSet for enhancing application/Service development.
3.Competence development applications to service-point operators.
4.Steering and control driven service directed to decision-makers and other media.

The plan is that the service model will be implemented in six collaborating European cities depending on local and cultural factors. Local implementations will be evaluated with a common developed multi -perspective evaluation model. Presentations of implementations and evaluation results will form the base for a common dissemination model implemented in web technology.

Even if the service model is focusing rationalisation of public administration, there will be important connections to electronic democracy and integrated problem-oriented education programs.

The paper outlines the important key tasks for this project and all kinds of comments on the project and of the identified key tasks are welcome.

The Missing Link: Duality and Group Behavior

Kirill Goldstein
241-89th Street,
Brooklyn, NY 11209

It has been asserted that "[...] duality is an integral property of self-reflective thought" (Banathy, 1985) and thought would be impossible without it (Voorhees, 1985). The ability to distinguish (colors, sounds, things, etc., and consequently ideas) is the primary mode of dualization that allows for more complex ones, from social distinctions like group behavior (distinguishing whether an individual belongs to a certain group) to formulation of elaborate philosophical concepts such as the Yin and Yang in Chinese thought. This paper attempts to follow the development of dualization from the basic to the complex mode and to link this development to group behavior.

As has been mentioned above, one of the functional attributes of group behavior is distinction between the members of one's group versus the members of another group (De Waal, 1997). In comparison to the basic ability to distinguish things, the kind of distinction that is involved in the process of group behavior, is more complex because it involves social interaction, and often produces judgements of ethical nature as results (De Waal 1997). This has been observed in repeated studies of bonobos' social behavior by F. De Waal and has been linked by him to a similar kind of human social pattern of associating oneself with a certain group. These associations inevitable in the complex world that we inhabit and are made by humans every day. The criteria of association are quite wide, from ethnic and racial distinction to association according to age as well as other unifying characteristic, such as pedestrians vs. drivers, etc.

This paper attempts to identify that this sort of distinction comes as a direct result of group behavior (whether on the instinctively, as De Waal asserts, or as result of learning) and could be considered as an intermediary link between the basic simple distinction that is at the core of the human ability to dualize (Banathy,1985) and complex conceptualization "which are basic for philosophical and theoretical thought in most cultures" (Dubrovsky, 1998). In other words, the fact that dualization is so inherent to the human mode of thought is not only a result of the general ability to distinguish, but is also a consequence of the associations and distinctions that we owe to group behavior, on the more complex level.

Ethics in the Age of Disorder

Martine M.E. Dodds
Departments of Sociology & Philosophy
University of Stellenbosch
STELLENBOSCH 7600, South Africa
and INTERACT, Philadelphia, USA

This paper seeks to explore the implications of a changed world for how we understand and create our future, as our evolutionary task becomes a self-conscious one. This task is an ethical one of
‘conducting ourselves properly in this world’, as Churchman said. The ‘rationalist’, rule-based, fixed, prescribed standards of human conduct and socio-economic operational defaults of Western society not only served us poorly as stewards of our world and our own humanity, but has through its inversion of ends and means, and the primacy accorded a form of inquiry and praxis based on a structural and ‘Euclidian’ rationality, led us into a dangerous path-dependency as we see the unintended consequences of the Industrial Revolution unfold. Theory and practice are not separate realms but closely intertwined. How we think about reality has implications for how we see our ethical task, and this paper looks at the nature of human and evolutionary values from a systemic perspective.

KEYWORDS: Western rationality; fragmentation; autonomy and interdependence; binary logic; conflict, complexity; reintegration; human values; evolutionary systems ethics; whole-and-part dynamics; harmonic collaboration; open systems responsibility.

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