Jump to next alphabetical section A to C D to G H to J K to L M to O P to S T to Z

Section H through I

Martin L.W. Hall Systems Thinking and Human Values: Towards Understanding the Chaos in Organizations

Christine Hardy Complex Semantic Systems: Understanding Mind-in-the-world

Tim Haslett and Charles Osborne Local Rule Theory:
Applying Complexity Theory to Organizations

David L. Hawk , Minna TakalaA 21st Century Challenge to Corporate Values: From Functional Success to Context as Everything

Misha Hebel Exploring the Human Values embedded in Information Systems

Simeon Hein Resonant Viewing and The Evolution of Human Consciousness

Daniel Hershey, Our Aging,Evolving Universe:From Birth(Out of Infinity)To Death(Return to Infinity)

Sylvia Herz, Surge of Baby Boomers into 21st Century
Differing Generational Lifestyles and Perspectives

C. A. Hilgartner, Martha A. Bartter and Ronald V. Harrington WANTED: Scientific Science

Koichi Hirano & Ray Paton Temporal Development within a Macroeconomic System Interpreted
in the Past Progressive Tense: A Study of the Japanese Economy

Wolfgang Hofkirchner Ways of thinking and the Unification of Science

Wolfgang Hofkirchner Cognitive Sciences in a Unified Theory of Information Perspective

Yoshihide Horiuchi, Ph.D. Proposal of Virtual Transportation Industry: Idealization
of Transportation Systems with Social Systems Navigation

Sang W. Hwang A General Evolutionary Perspective on Sustainable
Development: Working Model of a General
Evolutionary Methodology

A.Igamberdiev and I.Rojdestvenski Coherence as a Basis of Computational Properties in Living Systems

David Ing and Ian Simmonds Designing Natural Tension into the Structure of Adaptive
Enterprises -- "Context and Coordination" in the Sense & Respond Organization

Jorge Ishizawa-Oba The Interculturability as a Paradigm of the 21st Century
La Interculturalidad Como Paradigma del Siglo XXI

Simon T. Jencius Human Personality as Simple and Complex Systems:
Psychological and Philosophical Issues Involving the Self, Individuality, and Uniqueness

Simon T. Jencius Fuzzy Set Analysis in the Complex System of Human Personality

Patrick M. Jenlink Crossing Boundaries, Changing Consciousness, and Creating Learning Communities: Systems Design as Scholarly Practice in Educational Change

Soon Mi Jeong A Study on Complex Adaptive Mechanism in CapitalistSystem


Jump to next alphabetical section A to C D to G H to J K to L M to O P to S T to Z


Our Aging,Evolving Universe:From Birth(Out of Infinity)To Death(Return to Infinity)

By Daniel Hershey
Professor of Chemical Engineering,University of
Cincinnati,Ohio 45221-0171,USA

This work is an extension of a previously presented paper at the "Spirituality" session of the 1998 ISSS annual meeting in Atlanta("Entropy, Infinity, and God-The Universe and Beyond.") Now we present data from the literature on the physical properties of our universe, the model for the universe as an ideal gas, and the temperature-volume-age history of the universe. From these data we can infer the present age of the universe and its death age. We also hypothesize on how our universe was formed and how it will die. From our studies, we can begin to understand the significance of our existence on earth, and explore the question of how all this relates to the concept of God. We are an integral part of an increasingly complex society ,of earth, of our galaxy, of our universe, and of Infinity, which is beyond everything. Understanding the hierarchy of things places our lives and our accomplishments in perspective. Understanding our origins and our limitations produces a certain humility which can lead to an appreciation of our very finite stay on earth. Understanding all of this can perhaps encourage a morality which can lead to a permanent peace on earth.


Ways of thinking and the Unification of Science

Wolfgang Hofkirchner
Institute of Design and Technology Assessment, Vienna University of Technology

Scientific disciplines usually can be distinguished along three aspects: purpose, domain, and approach. On each level, there is a problem that they are confronted with. On the level of purpose, the relationship of theory and practice is addressed and the question arises how a mediation between is and ought, between theories and technologies may be possible. On the level of domain, the relation between theory and reality is entangled and, thus, the problem of hypotheses becoming theories and theories becoming deeper. On the level of approach, the theory-method relation is in question and whether or not observations form the basis on which theories build upon. The fundamental problems of science are embedded one in another as the figure shows.

According to the way a dis-ci--pline is trying to come to grips with the problems it can be said it embodies a cer-tain way of thinking. On the one hand, there is a na-turalistic way of thinking which is characteristic of na---tural science disciplines. This way of thinking holds that induction is possible lea---ding from observations to hypotheses, that verifica-tion is possible leading from hypotheses to theories and that guidelines for ac--tion can be derived from de-scribing facts. On the other hand, there are two kinds of a culturalistic way of thin--king: anthropo-mor-phism and dualism, both of which start from the predo-mi-nance of attitudes that prove theo-ries fal-lible which, in turn, prove obser-vations but rela-tive.

The crux is that both ways of thinking do not enable humanity to master global challenges and to get the emerging world society on a sus-tainable path. A theory of evo-lutio-nary systems uni-fying vari-ous self-organi-zation re-search findings has to select a way of thin-king that imparts phi-losophical reflection. Only by this the gap between the so-called ”hard” and ”soft” sciences may be bridged. [9945]

WANTED: Scientific Science

C. A. Hilgartner, Martha A. Bartter
and Ronald V. Harrington
2413 North East Street
Kirksville MO 63501

Today's physicists and mathematicians have followed their methods of study into an impasse, in which they variously cannot account for their findings or cannot comprehend them.

Our research group may have found a way out of that impasse. Starting from the premises proposed by Alfred Korzybski, we have developed an alternative frame of reference. It appears more general than does any earlier theory; in particular, it includes the usual frame of reference of our sciences as a special case.

The premises we choose make self-reflexive topics highly important, whereas the frame of reference of our usual sciences in general and physics in particular eliminate such topics from consideration. In this paper, we > show that Newtonian physics appears acceptably testable concerning the > motions of bodies or points; and utterly unexamined concerning self-reflexive topics such as "taking the observer into account" in any sense at all. Similarly, relativity physics appears acceptably testable concerning "spatio-temporally ordered" happenings (e.g. those which center on the distinctions an observer makes on the topic of 'here/there" and "before/after"; and entirely unexamined concerning other aspects of "self" and "the social" and other self-reflexive topics. Likewise, today's quantum theory has certain strengths, but shares some of these weaknesses.

In other words, since standard science, including physics, cannot account for the way physicists get altered by practicing physics, it cannot adequately represent anything living. And that inability prevents physicists from adequately accounting for anything non-living.

We provide the fundamental basis for a physics that takes the observer -- the physicist -- into account. We assert that such a "fully transactional" way of doing physics will improve the predictability of contemporary methods and may lead to new breakthroughs.

Cognitive Sciences in a Unified Theory of Information Perspective

Wolfgang Hofkirchner
Institute of Design and Technology Assessment, Vienna University of Technology

In cognitive sciences, there is a divide between a naturalistic main stream and a culturalistic thread. The first one, known as cognitivism, comprises the symbolism and the connectionism which are based upon the assumption of the computability of cognitive processes, while the second one, the phenomenological-hermeneutic thinking, defies this very assumption and postulates, instead, features of cognition in their own right. Put together, both approaches are not supplementary in providing an appropriate picture of the phenomenon of cognition: With regard to the role experience is thought to play in cognition, either the tradition of sensualistic and empiristic aposteriorism is continued or, in a rationalist’s or in an ”autist’s” manner, the existence of aprioris is suggested. Concerning the relation between cognitions and the objects they refer to, you either have to choose the representational stance of objectivism or the constructivistic, solipsistic, spiritualistic or platonistic view of subjectivism. And as to the intentionality of cognitons, causal relationships between cognitions are considered sufficient (causalism) or explanations which resort to attitudes of persons towards situations are deemed essential (intentionalism, ”voluntarism”).
That is, computationalism, on the one hand, and phenomenology and hermeneutics, on the other, are extreme positions which are one-sided and cannot be mediated as such. However, it is favorable to adopt another point of view that tries to take up those aspects which are reflected in a right way. This seems possible by applying the emergentist methodology of evolutionary systems. Thus, in human information generating systems, perception may be looked upon as a concurrence of reception and conception resulting in data, interpretation may be conceived as as an interplay of ”projection” (construction) and ”introjection” (adaptation) producing knowledge with meaning, and evaluation/decision may be the collaboration of descriptive and prescriptive processes leading to what, eventually, can be labelled as ”wisdom” containing values, ethics, morals, as is shown in the figure.

Fuzzy Set Analysis in the Complex System of Human Personality

Simon T. Jencius
University of Vienna
Franz Josefs-Kai 29/807
A-1010 Vienna, Austria

Fuzziness is a part of everyday life. Somehow, with all that fuzziness out there, we continue to go about and complete our daily tasks as well as converse our ideas with others about the world. The thought and language we use (e.g., a nice person) is formulated by the unique and idiosyncratic events we experience as well as the internal knowledge mechanisms we apply in understanding. Too often the termology used in well established scientific schools of personality psychology is fuzzy. The issue of fuzziness has come up in many other scientific fields (e.g., philosophy, mathematics, etc.), so it is about time that the field of personality psychology address this matter. In reality, personality psychology could continue to ignore these issues of fuzziness and persist oversimplifying the scientific study of human behavior and reduce it down to that of a simple system. Unfortunately, some schools of personality psychology are actually guilty of this! Take for example the five-factor model of personality (McCrae & Costa, 1996). Here, human personality is broken down in five dimensions. Human beings are placed (and misplaced) into a category that does not truly reflect who they are and what they are. The five-factor model systematically ignores the uniqueness of the individual by placing that individual in a group with broad and general concepts for an oversimplified understanding of thought and action in the individual. Fortunately, in contrast, other schools in personality psychology, such as the social-cognitive approach (Bandura, 1986; Cervone, 1997; Mischel, 1973; Mischel & Shoda, 1995), concentrate on idiographic patterns of behavior and the uniqueness of the individual which create a complex system of personality. Fuzzy set theory and analysis (Smithson, 1987) may be applied in the field of personality psychology to study the complexity in human thought and action. Research on the social-cognitive mechanisms in behavior (Jencius, 1998) with application of fuzzy set analysis (Smithson, 1987) suggests that human personality is a complex system.

Human Personality as Simple and Complex Systems:
Psychological and Philosophical Issues Involving the Self, Individuality, and Uniqueness

Simon T. Jencius
University of Vienna
Franz Josefs-Kai 29/807
A-1010 Vienna, Austria

The individual, like all individuals, is truly a complex organism. Therefore, human personality may best be described and understood as a reciprocally-interactive complex system. Biological history, genetic background, culture, society, social-cognitive learning factors, judgements, consequences of action and behavior, and psychological aspects of situations all contribute in concert toward the dynamic system of human personality. Unfortunately, however, there exists a split in theoretical, philosophical, and psychological features of the scientific study of human personality creating two seperate disciplines (Cervone, 1991). The distinction between these approaches has received attention both within the psychological literature on personality (Cervone, 1991; Mischel & Shoda, 1995, Shadel & Cervone, 1993) and in recent literature on the philosophy of science (Shaffer, 1996). The two schools of personality psychology, the trait/dispositional approach (McCrae & Costa, 1996) and the social-cognitive approach (Bandura, 1986; Cervone, 1997; Mischel, 1973; Mischel & Shoda, 1995), are currently engaged in a debate analogous to a persistent issue, simplicity and simple systems versus complexity and complex systems, present in science and philosophy. This persistent issue on simple versus complex systems is also relevant to the debate between personality psychologists. Trait/dispositional approaches seek simple explanations for behavior and view personality as a simple system. Although simplicity is valuable, it is not the key focus of social-cognitive theorists. Social-cognitive approaches investigate the uniqueness of the individual and construct a complex system for understanding thought and action in human personality. This paper presents a solution, shown in the philosophy of science literature on alternative models of scientific explanation, to the theoretical and philosophical problems involving simple and complex systems in personality psychology. Research reveals that complex cognitive mechanisms mediate and regulate idiographic patterns of thought and behavior in the individual which suggest personality to be a complex system.

Abstract for paper presentation for The Fourty-Third Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences, Systems Psychology and Psychiatry, Pacific Grove, California, USA.


The Interculturability as a Paradigm of the 21st Century
La Interculturalidad Como Paradigma del Siglo XXI

Jorge Ishizawa-Oba
Senior Researcher
Andean Institute of Systems - IAS
P.O. Box 18-0680, Lima, 18 - Peru

The systems approach seemed to attend, mainly in the last decades, to the conceptual need of interdisciplinarity. With systems each time more complex, the participation of a major number of specialists and specialities made it more necessary and the methodological problem consisted in offer a common representation that allows a coherent intervention. In particular, since the 70’s decade, the need to incorporate the environmental factors to the analysis, oblied the search of adequate methods to treat socio-technical systems. Thus, the conceptual problems of the systems approach have been considered fundamentally to be of epistemological character and it has been tried diverse theoretical alternatives in Peru in order to elaborate an adequate representation of the complicated Andean reality in order to do effective transformation interventions. In general, the achievements have not been in the hight of the expectances and the efforts applied
In the present paper, it is suggested that the effort could have been ill oriented and that the problem is not just methodological. To explain that, it can be started from something possible to demonstrate: the Andean Peru is a pluricultural entity and each culture appreciates it since their proper cosmovision. Then, the relationship among cultures that appears to be problematic, is not due to epistemologies but on cosmovisions. It is then presented in this context a description of the interculturability paradigm and is explored the pertinence of the systems approach in this context, having in mind that the systems approach is the inheritor of the scientific vision and a technique of one of them, the occidental modern culture. Finally, it is pointed out the implications of the paradigm in diverse aspects of the application of the systems approach.

Key Words: Cosmovision, epistemology, paradigm, systems approach, interculturability.


El enfoque sistémico pareció atender sobre todo en las últimas décadas a la necesidad conceptual de la interdisciplinariedad. Con sistemas crecientemente más complejos, la participación de un número mayor de especialistas y de especialidades se hizo indispensable y el problema metodológico consistía en ofrecer una representación común que permitiera una intervención coherente. En particular, desde la década de los 70, la necesidad de incorporar al análisis los factores ambientales exacerbó la búsqueda de métodos adecuados para tratar los sistemas bio-socio-técnicos. De este modo los problemas conceptuales del enfoque sistémico han sido considerados fundamentalmente de carácter epistemológico y se han ensayado diversas alternativas teóricas en el Perú para elaborar una representación adecuada de la complicada realidad andina y realizar intervenciones eficaces de transformación. En general los logros no han estado a la altura de las expectativas y del esfuerzo desplegado.

En la presente ponencia se sugiere que el esfuerzo puede haber sido mal orientado y que el problema no es metodológico. Para ello se parte de una constatación: el Perú andino es una entidad pluricultural y cada cultura lo aprecia desde su propia cosmovisión. La relación entre culturas que aparece como problemática no es entonces de epistemologías cuanto de cosmovisiones. Se presenta en este contexto una descripción del paradigma de la interculturalidad y se explora la pertinencia del enfoque sistémico en este contexto, teniendo en cuenta que el enfoque sistémico es heredero de la visión científica y técnica de una de ellas, la cultura occidental moderna. Finalmente, se señalan las implicancias del paradigma en diversos aspectos de la aplicación del enfoque sistémico.

Palabras Clave: Cosmovisión, epistemología, paradigma, enfoque de sistemas, interculturabilidad.

Temporal Development within a Macroeconomic System Interpreted
in the Past Progressive Tense: A Study of the Japanese Economy

Koichi Hirano & Ray Paton
Department of Computer Science
University of Liverpool
Liverpool L69 7ZF, United Kingdom

The aim of this paper is to report on work in economic modeling which employs the linguistic past progressive mode in describing empirical systems. Aspects of empirical significance including the struggles of internal observers are presented as a possible source of structural changes in the Japanese economy.

Based on a non-disequilibrium macroeconomic model proposed by Matsuno (1978), the authors developed a network-flow model of macroeconomic systems. The model can reproduce action and reaction by macroeconomic subjects in the form of their struggling decisions and their monetary
flow disequilibrium as in the past progressive mode and by referring to several monetary records as a posteriori constraints. So far, 50 years of records of the Japanese economy are simulated.

The context of this study is as follows. When one describes an empirical system, there are at least three linguistic modes available: the present tense mode, the present perfect and the present progressive. Any dynamic behaviour in progress could itself be expressed in the mode of the present progressive tense instead of the present tense. Let us quote an excellent example by Matsuno (1997), "I am walking through a crowd as avoiding collisions with other people. Then, I can see that other people are doing the same. That is, I am walking through the crowd as collisions with other people being avoided. The statement of my walking in the present progressive tense makes others beside myself active agents, also. Of course, they are active observers." A significance of the present progressive mode is its multi-agentiality. On the other hand, both in the mode of the present tense and the present perfect tense, there is only one agent which can monopolistically describe the rest of observes as being frozen. As a consequence, the aspect of any dynamical process between observers could be eliminated in these two modes. However, it would not be convincing to employ the present progressive mode, because the principle of the excluded middle cannot be guaranteed in the present progressive mode a priori. Any process described in the present progressive mode is ongoing, but not yet finished. We, as those describing a concerned system, forcibly face this difficulty if we seriously consider the use of the present progressive mode.

A candidate to overcome the difficulty could be to rely on an invariant property of a concerned system. The conservation law of energy or energy flow continuity would be a good example of such invariance. Observers inside the system can be taken to act so as to fulfil the conservation law a posteriori, which can be expressed in the present progressive mode.

Apart from physical systems, economies also have such an invariant property. The maintenance of the monetary flow continuity of each observer or economic subject is a case in point. Apart from monetary authorities such as central banks, any economic subject is not allowed to issue bank notes, thus every economic subject except bank note issuers should maintain their monetary flow equilibrium through manipulating the intensity of outgoing flow and inflow. If one continuously failed, one would face bankruptcy, and would no more be an independent economic subject in the economy. The maintenance of the monetary flow continuity is the most principal process in the present progressive mode of our modern economies. This dynamics is, however, necessarily under-complete simply because there is no global co-ordination, in other words, each economic subject faces its flow disequilibrium indefinitely. Through this process, something can be fixed in the form of an irrevocable record. Several monetary records including the currency circulating in the market are available thanks to monetary authorities.


Resonant Viewing and The Evolution of Human Consciousness

Simeon Hein
Mount Baldy Institute for Resonant Viewing
1942 Broadway, Suite 409
Boulder CO 80302

Resonant Viewing is a descendent of the protocols designed for use by the military during the cold war. The techniques enable viewers to access a broader spectrum of information by synchronizing activity between the left and right hemispheres of the brain and also conscious and subconscious thought processes. Data collected from viewing studies done over the last twenty years suggest that all humans have innate telepathic abilities that can be harnessed with relatively little training. These abilities show that both space and time are malleable properties that can be transcended. This implies that principles of quantum mechanics and nonlinear dynamics have both a practical and important role to play in the future evolution of human information processing activities.

Surge of Baby Boomers into 21st Century. Differing Generational Lifestyles and Perspectives

Sylvia Herz,

Licensed Clinical Psychologist
Diplomate, American Board of Family Psychology
Fellow, American Psychological Association
1201 South Ocean Drive, Suite 905S
Hollywood, Florida 33019

The 75 million Baby Boomer generation differs from the elderly, in the final years of the 1990's, as well as the younger group-called Xers-below them. Boomers are products of the Civil Rights Movement, upheavals in the 1950's and 1960's, the "sit-ins" and riots protesting the Vietnam Was and other profound social change. The are characterized as the "me" generation. As this all-time-high population age group reaches its seniority, all at once in the early second decade of the 21st century, we will experience a definitive societal impact. In contrast, the Xers are still "what's in it for me" generation. They are apathetic, apprehensive, as well as cynical of organized religion, politics, community, ethics, authority and harbor feelings of mistrust and hypocrisy in the body politic while being unsure about their future. In contrast, the elderly are victims of depression and World War II. They are patriotic and value country, God, honor and duty. They are grateful, responsible and consider themselves lucky to encounter current better economic times. Characteristics of these three successive generations are explored on a psycho-social-economic basis. Their varied generational attitudes, beliefs, ethics and behavior are compared as we anticipate the millennium.


Proposal of Virtual Transportation Industry: Idealization of Transportation Systems with Social Systems Navigation

Yoshihide Horiuchi,
School of Administration and Informatics, University of Shizuoka
52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan

When we define transportation in a larger sense as movement of people, goods and information, we can idealize the future transportation systems with a new perspective of transportation, which is not limited to physical movement, but also includes movement of information. With global warming in mind, this opens up a potential for new industry: virtual transportation industry.

We find that contemporary transportation policies and their research need to incorporate idealized systems thinking, in addition to incrementalism. Contemporary research on transportation tends to be incremental, focusing on transportation demand management and transportation supply system. The former focuses in adjusting the demand for transportation, while the latter focuses on improving the supply of transportation. Both take the transportation needs as needs of physically moving people and goods. However, historical research indicates that there is a correlation between the expansion of transportation system and the distance people travel. This means that transportation demand is created by improvement of transportation.

Transportation literature review finds that the need for transportation includes not only functional physical transportation of people and goods, but also our stylistic, intrinsic desire to explore new territory and to enjoy traveling itself. For such stylistic desires of transportation, we can propose virtual transportation industry. If we could substitute travelling for pleasure with virtual transportation, we could considerably reduce global warming caused by transportation.

Social Systems Navigation (SSNV) is a multi-layer, stepwise, iterative idealized design system developed by Horiuchi (1994), based on Russell L. Ackoff's idealized design paradigm. With the Social Systems Navigation, we find that contemporary transportation policies and their research need to incorporate idealized systems thinking, in addition to incrementalism. For designing future transportation systems with an open-systems perspective, we offer the following idealized proposals: 1. Research on automobile and oil industries as supply side of automobile transportation system; 2. Historical research on the history of transportation: its technological and social, cultural aspects; 3. Identifying new achievement goals instead of automobile ownership and usage; 4. Idealizing the concept of transportation; and 5. Propose "virtual transportation" industry.

When we idealize future transportation systems with curtailing global warming in mind, we have to redesign the automobile and oil industries, which have a major role in the global economy. If we propose virtual transportation industries, we could convert a part of the automobile production facilities. For exempt, Porsche could have a real sportscar division and a virtual sportscar division. Also, a travel agent could offer a real Orient Express, and a virtual Orient Express. Virtual Transportation Industries require extensive development of simulation systems, in the line of the current training simulators for aircraft pilots. Such simulation systems require not only realistic visions, but also realistic sound, movement, physical set up, and if possible, smell. The aim is to produce highly realistic travel without actually traveling, and without producing much environmental damage. In other words, we are proposing travel by information, rather than physical travel for partially replacing our transportation needs.


Exploring the Human Values embedded in Information Systems

Misha Hebel
Brunel University, Department of Information Systems and Computing,
Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH, United Kingdom


This paper looks at the reoccurring demands and issues inherent in matching Information Systems to organisational needs. It suggests that in order to achieve a good match it is necessary to find common ground shared by the values embodied in both areas. It is based on research into the issues surrounding performance measurement, a key element of IS. The soft systems analysis places human values theory in the context of systems thinking, where values are taken as system components, their groupings as systems and the expectations and behaviours produced by the system as emergence. The paper goes on to speculate how value systems might be integrated into IS design and valuation.

Systems Thinking and Human Values: Towards Understanding the Chaos in Organizations
Martin L.W. Hall

Research Fellow,
Lincoln School of Management
University of Lincolnshire & Humberside
and Values Technology
2924 Conifer Court,
Napa, CA 94558-5876 USA

This paper looks at how human values measurement and systems thinking principles can become a part of the system for understanding chaos in organizations. Tools and methodologies will be examined to see how they might be used to help make sense out of the complexity in the modern organization. Core issues include such elements as decision-making, organizational culture and the usefulness of effective values measurement techniques and their applicability in a systems framework.
Links will be made between values and organizational structure and process. Discussion will be centered around how to specifically and practically use both individual and organizational values to transform organizations toward a more effective and efficient reality.

Coherence as a Basis of Computational Properties in Living Systems

A.Igamberdiev and I.Rojdestvenski
Department of Plant Physiology, Umea University
Umea 901 87, Sweden

Interaction between the high-energy (based on the dynamic coherent non-equilibrium energy-driven processes) and the low-energy constraints (based on coherent quantum phenomena) underlies biological organization. The concept of coherence as an organizing principle of biological structures was introduced at the beginning of the XX century by A.G.Gurwitsch who formulated the idea of a low-energy field determining the biosystem's organization as a total entity. In his views, this field determines the continuous operation of a biosystem. Coherent states actually bridge the gap between micro and macroscales, realizing the "prehension" (A.N.Whitehead) of single points into total entities.

Coherence may be also viewed as a collapse of infinite recursion into fractal time-space structure. Coherent energy transfer allows for macromolecules to operate with high efficiency and realize computation. The quantum coherent state is limited by the minimum uncertainty condition, allowing for the provision of computation and information transfer with almost 100% efficiency. The information based on specific recognitions triggering dynamical energy-driven processes appears as non-digital; the transfer of digital information is realized within hypercycles and corresponds to the operation of the genetic code.

The recognition process is a quantum measurement underlying the enzymatic conversion of a substrate into the product. Futile cycles introduce uncertainty ("damping") for the collapse of infinite recursion into coherent (fractal) state (as friction makes a pendulum to stop). The switching via separation of the direct and reverse routes in futile cycles provides the generation and complication of metabolic networks, and the coherence within cycles is maintained by the supramolecular organization of enzymes.

The genetic level corresponding to the appearance of digital information is based on reflective arrows (catalysts realize their own self-reproduction). Via coherent events which percolate from the elementary submolecular level to organismic entities self-assembly based on the molecular complementarity is realized and the dynamic informational field operating within the metabolic network is generated.


Local Rule Theory:
Applying Complexity Theory to Organizations

Tim Haslett and Charles Osborne
2 Rosedale Grove,Frankston
Victoria 3199, Australia

Theories of organizational change processes must necessarily be predicated on theories of organizational stability. This paper develops local rule theory which suggests that patterns of behaviour, generated at an individual or group level, are a major determinant of organizational stability. Local rule theory further suggests that human behaviour should be viewed from an ecological perspective where two key determinants of behaviour are competition and co-evolution. The central metaphor in this context is a fitness landscape where adaptive behaviours create peaks, which constitute increasing optimization of payoffs, for individuals and groups. Such adaptive behaviours are responses to the immediate and local demands of the environment. In this respect, local rule theory suggests that locally determined behaviour may be a significant determinant of organizational performance and stability. The organizing principle in the development of local rules is a bottom-up process of emergence where successful local rules will spread to wide localities and where the interaction between sets of local rules remains stable over time. Evidence from two organizations is cited in support of local rule theory. The first uses a catastrophe model to demonstrate the nonlinearities underlying stable patterns of behaviour arising from local rules and the second uses a System Dynamics computer simulation to demonstrate the effects that a set of local rules has on organizational performance. The paper concludes with some suggestions of the dynamic nature of the interaction between domains of local rules based an ecological model.

A General Evolutionary Perspective on Sustainable
Development: Working Model of a General
Evolutionary Methodology

Sang W. Hwang
Environmental Studies Program
Sweet Briar College
Sweet Briar Virginia 24595 USA

In this paper, I draw upon theory from the field of general evolutionary sciences (including chaos theory, complexity science, and nonlinear thermodynamics) for developing a framework for understanding emerging sustainable development systems. I translate this emerging theoretical worldview to a general evolutionary methodology for the analysis of sustainable development strategies. In this paper, as a way of transdisciplinary synthesis, I present the concepts of nonlinear interdependence, self-organization, and qualitative evolution that functions as an interpretive framework for analysis complex dynamic systems. More importantly, I have translated the general evolutionary paradigm to a methodological focus, identifying three methodological components - structural, process and transformational components.

Key words: Complex Systems, Environmental Planning, General Evolutionary Methodology, Sustainable Development.

A Study on Complex Adaptive Mechanism in CapitalistSystem

Soon Mi Jeong
SungShin Women's University
Seoul, Korea

The purpose of this study is to make clear the property and the limit of adaptive mechanism is the capitalism, additionally present the direction of the order-building of self-organizing capitalism reflecting complexity in the present state of economy. In this study, I would like to focus on examine how the capitalism has changed through self-organization having the viability in spite of the economic depression and the disparity in wealth in it. This study will adopt the complex system model based on the systemic concept as the methodological frame.

A 21st Century Challenge to Corporate Values: From Functional Success to Context as Everything

David L. Hawk, Minna Takala

Helsinki University of Technology
P.O. Box 9500, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland

The values of business, as seen in education and practice, have changed since the early days of general systems theory development. Some systems scientists that work with companies have developed a tenuous hope that the dominant model of business operations may be coming to internalize what has long been called the systems attitude. Is this hope justified, how can it be nurtured and what might its realization mean?
The hope is mainly seen in how some leading companies are responding to a set of new challenges to corporate business-as-usual. 1)The first is a need to find ways to incorporate context into corporate decision-making. 2)The second is the need to accommodate environmental concerns in day-to-day business operations. Context is the more ambiguous of the two but environment is probably the more challenging to traditional corporate structures. Evidence shows why and how the two can be combined in a mutually supportive way. Recent research illustrates that a number of companies and a few individuals have already discovered highly innovative ways to make contextual decisions while appreciating environmental concerns. These locations for optimism generally involve international business. An executive of AT&T recently suggested that for future success: “context is everything.” His was an article criticizing how governmental subsidies were out of sync with emerging values of societal and natural wellbeing, including subsidies that benefited his company. The dilemma was that you could only see this if you took a contextual viewpoint, but almost everything was organized around a reductionistic point of view.
The paper will describe two ways to build as distinct from consume context. The first is via doing traditional business education and research in non-traditional ways. The executive management program set up by Nokia and nine other Finnish companies illustrates one novel approach to a systems education. The Energy Star research program for changing the US construction industry without regulation is a novel approach to a systems model of action research. A way to teach international business as context appreciation in the executive program at New Jersey Institute of Technology illustrates a means to combine education and research. All three efforts will be described in the paper in terms of what they mean for the convergence mentioned at the outset.


Designing Natural Tension into the Structure of Adaptive
Enterprises -- "Context and Coordination" in the Sense & Respond Organization

David Ing and Ian Simmonds
IBM Advanced Business Institute, Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964, U.S.A.
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 30 Saw Mill River Road, Hawthorne, NY 10532, U.S.A.

The sense-and-respond organization, as described in Haeckel (1999), is an approach to designing adaptive enterprises. One part of the design requires a shift from an orientation towards activities to an orientation towards outcomes. This "context-and-coordination" approach is suggested as an alternative to the traditional "command-and-control" model which is common in many businesses.

Using the categorization of purposefulness from Ackoff & Gharajedaghi (1996), the context-and-coordination approach to designing a social system is depicted as a natural tension between an animate model and an ecological model. This tension is considered to be a desirable property for the enterprise, and is refined in view of the model of shearing layers observed by Brand (1994).

The article concludes with a discussion of future research directions.

Keywords: Adaptiveness, purpose, social systems, sense-and-respond, context and coordination, shearing layers

Complex Semantic Systems: Understanding Mind-in-the-world

Christine Hardy, LRIP.
51 Bis, Av.P.V.Couturier.
91390 Morsang sur Orge, France

The information age--best exemplified by the internet--has shifted our worldview away from mechanistic interactions toward more abstract forces: networks of mostly semantic interactions, that nevertheless shape events in the world. Inevitably, we have come to recognize that paradigms--scientific and otherwise--influence our decisions and actions, and end up drastically modifying the planet itself. Consequently, a complete theory of mind should account for the systemic interaction of mind-society-environment. The cognitivist paradigm views all mental processes as purely internal operations. By contrast, the present Semantic Fields theory views both mind and the world as sets of complex dynamical systems of mutual influence. First, the mind is viewed as a dynamical network of interacting processes: the cooperation and co-evolution of mental and neural processes through experience lead to the creation of specific, dedicated sub-systems--called semantic constellations or SeCos--that act as attractors and shape subsequent experiences. The mind, as a lattice of interlinked SeCos, thus presents both network and dynamical-systems properties: self-organization, parallel processing, cooperation as well as competition, nonlinearity, etc. This allows for enormous flexibility and complexity and is the ground for conative processes, true innovation and creative evolution. Second, the projection of meaning onto the environment creates a semantic organizational level in natural and social systems. For example, a holiday resort is an "eco-semantic field" linking together spatial and environmental organizations, concepts, values, and social codes, thus influencing our behaviors. Furthermore, eco-semantic fields affect the existence and evolution of things, whether man-made or natural: specific environments are modified by the meanings and goals projected unto them. In positing that the meaning we give to the world around us helps shape that world--even before we start acting on it we bring home the awareness of our responsibility with regard to the way humanity and Earth will co-evolve.

Crossing Boundaries, Changing Consciousness, and Creating Learning Communities:
Systems Design as Scholarly Practice in Educational Change

Patrick M. Jenlink
Stephen F. Austin State University
Box 13018 SFA Station
Nacogdoches, Texas 75976

We are currently faced with changes in our society unique to the postmodern area. Amidst these we find that the traditional educational systems no longer are able to meet the needs of children born in a postmodern world and who will live in the future born from the chaos of our times. Changing existing educational systems has been and continues to be the work of generations of educators and others who see a need to alter the existing mindsets about schools and schooling, and teaching and learning. Unfortunately, much of the work to date has proven less than effective in creating substantive changes in schools and practices of teaching and learning within the classroom. The reoccurring theme in almost all of the work on changing schools has focused on change through policy, curriculum, assessment, and advances in learning theory. While these topics are commendable, the approaches often taken have proved less than appropriate, and are almost always attempted in fragmented and incoherent fashion. The approaches often reflect the attempts which fail to consider the integrative or systemic nature of the educational system, leaving the innovation to fall short of hoped for results.

In an examination of literature and research on change over the past decade, it becomes apparent that change in schools and educational systems fails, or at least produces unfavorable results, because of some basic factors. These include the lack of understanding about the role that historical, cultural, social, psychological boundaries play in the change process. While efforts to address change often focus on political, economic, and instructional issues, these same efforts fail to consider factors most directly aligned with the individual and collective identity of teachers and other professionals in the school. Specifically, change efforts fail to consider such crucial aspects of the educational system as ideology, thought, language, and consciousness.

In consideration of the problematique of change in complex social systems, my work has focused on change in educational systems and schools. Most recently, I have been engaged in work on designing professional learning communities for practitioners. This work has extensively been aligned with designing learning systems which develop the capacity of teachers and administrators to be inquiring professionals who engage in scholarly practice and disciplined inquiry of their own practice. The purpose of this work has evolved from a belief that to change an educational system, or a school, we must enable those who practice in the schools to engage in crossing the boundaries which constrain or otherwise hold children and adults alike hostage in an outdated model of schooling and learning. Crossing boundaries requires a change in consciousness on an individual and social level. Crossing boundaries also requires a change in social systems which encourages individuals to create caring, intellectual communities of practice that honor difference and remove social inequities, thus creating socially just systems.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of educational systems design in creating caring communities of scholarly practitioners. It is presented in this study that educational systems design brings to the foreground important considerations in connecting individuals and establishing communities, creating and sustaining new cultures of inquiry and care, enabling generative and transformative learning, and developing new levels of consciousness. Change is presented as a social systemic process which transcends existing systems in favor new future oriented systems.

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