Jump to next alphabetical section A to C D to G H to J K to L M to O P to S T to Z

Section K to L

Magdalena A. Kalaidjieva Information Systems Based on 2nd Order Knowledge Bases

Roberto R Kampfner Compatibility with the Organization’s Functions as a goal of Information Systems Design

Roberto R. Kampfner Information Processing as an Aspect of the Dynamics of the Processes Underlying Function

Louis H. Kauffman Virtual Logic and The Flagg Resolution

Sean M. Kelly, From the Complexity of Consciousness to the Consciousness of Complexity

Sung Chull Kim Understanding of Institutional Change from Complex Systems Perspective

Lezlie Kinyon Aesthetic Inquiry: a New Idea for Human Science

Tetsunori Koizumi Materialization and Etherealization
as Conjugate processes in Systems Evolution

Frank R. (Bob) Kull Out Into Wild Aliveness... How Do I Pack For The Journey?

Vadim I. Kvitash, M.D., Ph.D. Balascopy-based General Systems Technology:
Theory, Methodology and Practical Tools

Vadim I. Kvitash, Adding Balascopy-based General Systems Feature
to What is Known in Liver Diseases

Hyuk-Kihl Kwon A complex systems approach to modeling for analyzing the revolutions;
from the 2nd Republic of Korea in 1961

Gregory LaPointe The Necessity for Understanding and Designing Humanistic Social Systems

Nils O. Larsson The vital balance

Nils O. Larsson Goals and Perspectives in the Design of Human Activity

Emilio Latorre and Hector Palacios A systemic model to evaluate the small peasant farm in Colombia from a sustainability perspective

Emilio Latorre Attitudes to Environmental Action at the Household Level in Cali Colombia

Alexander Laszlo Syntony as an Organizing Force in Societal Evolution

Kathia C. Laszlo Evolutionary Learning Community Inquiry: Theoretical background and core definitions

Dr. Beom Woong Lee A Study on Systems Education to Build the Sustainable Ecological Community

Constance M. Lehman Developing Integrated Social Policies to Support the
Emotional Well Being of Children

Allenna Leonard, Ph.D.New Developments in the Team Syntegrity Process

Ariel G. Leonard Information Support Requirements for Implementing Adaptive
Ecosystem Management

Aleksandr Levintov Dualistic Imprints of Culture

Sergey Levkov and Alexander Makarenko Anticipatory Aspects in Neuronet Type Models for Social Design Geopolitical Appliactions

Leon Levy Concepts of thinking

Hernán López-Garay In Search of Alternative Socio-political paradigms for Latin America:
a Preliminary Systemic Reflection

En Busca de Paradigmas Socio Politicos Alternos Para America Latina:
una Reflexion Sistemica Preliminar


Jump to next alphabetical section A to C D to G H to J K to L M to O P to S T to Z


From the Complexity of Consciousness to the Consciousness of Complexity

Sean M. Kelly,
Philosophy, Cosmology, and Consciousness
California Institute of Integral Studies

This paper explores the fruitfulness of Edgar Morin’s articulation of the principles of complex thinking for contemporary reflection on the nature of consciousness. Following some preliminary remarks on Teilhard de Chardin’s understanding of the connection between complexity--or “complexification”-- and consciousness, I turn to Ken Wilber’s “all quadrant, all level” assessment of the field of consciousness studies. While aknowledging the value of Wilber’s assessment, I argue that his hermeneutic principles of “holarchical integration” (which he adapts from Koestler’s notion of the “holon”) and “simultracking” fall short in accounting for the complex character of the relation between “levels’ (e.g., brain and mind) and “quadrants” (e.g., individual and society). Such an accounting is possible, however, when informed by the notions of recursivity, dialogic, and holography--Morin’s three principles of complex thinking. I conclude with the suggestion that these principles can be taken as expressions, in the cognitive mode, of the next main phase in the evolution of consciousness following the full deployment of formal operational thinking (Piaget), a phase variously described as post-formal, “integral consciousness” (Gebser), “intuitive reason” (Bohm), and “vision logic” (Wilber).

Concepts of thinking

Leon Levy
Address: 17, clos Dame Gille
77340 Pontault-Combault FRANCE
E-mail: l.levy@infonie.fr

The concepts used in BWR result from a research task that was based on the « Systems theory » (Ludwig von Bertalanffy) and mathematical logic (Jean Dominique Warnier).
The « Systems theory » explains that the system operation is better reflected by the relationships between its components rather than the components themselves. Thus appeared the fact that one could describe a system by his relations, therefore its flows, rather than by the activities (verbs) which are thousands in large systems.
The use of mathematical logic made it possible to build a consistent and easy to use method, which not only define a syntax and notation, but also gives the reasoning to be followed to lead quickly to a solution.
The 4 thinking concepts
There are 4 concepts used to understand and design systems:
Concept 1: Any system is a response to one Need
Every process included in a system has its source in a need. As the term of « need » is rather vague, we specify it very precisely within the second and fourth concepts.
Concept 2: It exists only two types of Needs
Production needs have their source in the final user. The corresponding process is a « Production Process ».
Constitution needs have their source in the « Production process » itself. These are the needs for equipments and human resources that constitute the process and the system.
Concept 3: A system is made of 3 « worlds »
This concept allows the « modelling by increasing complexity ». It exploits the fact that 80% of the complexity does not come from the process itself, but from the security devices added to this process. The 3 « worlds » which constitute any real system are:
The « perfect » world: it is a world without hazards, neither risks nor opportunities, i.e. breakdowns, human errors, time constraints, resources limitations, need for control. Evidently, this world does not exist, it is a concept to start with.
The world of the « dangers »: it is a world in which gradually appear the hazards, dangers, and opportunities that are revealed by the experiment or anticipation. These dangers or opportunities meet needs which are out of control of the « perfect » world.
The world of the « security »: the securities are devices aimed to limit the effects of the dangers or to increase the chances to seize an opportunity.
Concept 4: A process is made of 4 and only 4 flows
To represent the relationships between the components of a system we need 4 relations that are reflected by 4 flow types.
." Cause " flow: represents all the occurrences of the need.
."Effect " flow: represents the consequences of the « cause » flow.
." Valorization " flow: represents the value of the « effect » flow.
." Compensation " flow: represents the exchange of value symmetric to the « effect » flow.
Why they are generally applicable concepts
These concepts have proved to be very efficient in various business domains (industry, services, human resources, finance, banking) with persons of different languages, cultures and levels as well as in small to large companies. Applicability to other systems has been theoretically checked but has to be further confirmed in practice.
The reasons of the already large applicability come, in our opinion, not from the closeness to the systems structure laws, but from the nature of human thinking mechanisms.
Real cases in enterprise modeling
References will be given in satellite telecommunication systems integration, car manufacturing, energy production, management control, and life insurance.
Conclusion future research and bibliography

Materialization and Etherealization
as Conjugate processes in Systems Evolution

Tetsunori Koizumi
Faculty of Intercultural Communication
Ryukoku University
Otsu-shi, Shiga 520-2194

The evolution of natural as well as human systems involves two contrasting processes - materialization and etherealization. Materialization is a process by which systems develop visible and revealed characteristics, whereas etherealization is a process by which systems develop invisible and latent characteristics whose effects can only be inferred from visible and revealed characteristics.

Viewing evolution in terms of conjugate processes is not new as similar ideas can be found, for example, in Aristotle's forms and potentialities in the tradition of Western thought and the Buddha's Sankhara and Karma in the tradition of Eastern thought. The purpose of the present discussion is, first, to review similar views of evolution in the tradition of both Western and Eastern thoughts. It then examines the viability and usefulness of viewing evolution in terms of conjugate processes of materialization and etherealization in the light of recent developments in systems sciences. It is shown that conjugate processes of materialization and etherealization are indeed universal features of systems evolution. This is so because the usual definition of a system as a set of interacting elements applies in the physical space as well as in its conjugate, the ethereal space. Viewing systems evolution in terms of conjugate processes of materialization and etherealization is then shown to shed light on the nature of relationship between body and mind, between matter and spirit, between civilization and culture, and between science and spirituality. It is further shown that viewing evolution in this manner leads to a definite systems ethics - an ethic of stewardship defined at the individual, the social and the global level.


Aesthetic Inquiry: a New Idea for Human Science

Lezlie Kinyon
Saybrook Graduate School
POB 245 Monte Rio, CA 95462

This paper represents the beginning of the exploration of an idea: Aesthetic Inquiry, a term coined by Dr. Ruth Richards in her 1996 paper, Subtle Attraction. This paper is an attempt to present a wholistic approach to Human Science research, proposing that the arts, in terms of inquiry and discipline, are akin to the work of human science researchers.

To further explore this idea, this paper will begin with the Renaissance painters who asked questions concerning perspective in their work. Continuing with Matisse who found a very different answer to the same question, and will address Kant's Critique of Judgment and the idea of beauty and disinterest, as Richards discusses a possible refutation of Kant's widely held belief that "there can be no objective rule of taste, no rule of taste that determines by concept what is beautiful" (1790/1987).

In conclusion, the idea of kratophany and the sublime within the context of two examples of the process of the artist and the artist's purpose in creation will be explored with the idea of aesthetic inquiry as a way (in the Zen sense of the word) of encounter (as Rollo May used the term) which induces the researcher/artist to say: "notice this: there is something more here."

Syntony as an Organizing Force in Societal Evolution

Alexander Laszlo
Syntony Quest
1761 Vallejo Street, Suite 302
San Francisco, CA 94123-5029


Syntony is the means by which appropriateness is gained. The capacity to distinguish that which is appropriate from that which may not necessarily be so is a matter of discretion. Life in the natural world teems with examples of “goodness of fit” - between living system and milieu; life process and evolutionary dynamic; organismic form and organic function. These systems of syntony are manifest expressions of the natural syntony sense which all beings possess. However, this sense has atrophied to the point of vestigial capacity in human beings due largely to our ever increasing dependency on technologically mediated relations with our environment and our consequent distancing from nature and natural process. Study of grouping behavior among social animals (schooling among fish; flocking among birds; herding among mammals) provides insight into systems of syntony in which the syntony sense is strong. Certain human societies also demonstrate strong syntonic capacity, although for the most part, they are nested in some form of aboriginal culture. A consideration of the different ways in which syntony is manifest in both the ecosystemic and societal settings permits a greater understanding of syntony as an organizing force in societal evolution. Such understanding may provide a basis for discerning evolutionarily appropriate courses of action, both at the individual and at the collective/community levels. This paper seeks to provide the basis for this understanding. It is structured as follows: a brief introduction to the concept of syntony, reviewing the origins of the term and its denotative and connotative value in the context of evolutionary systems inquiry; an exploration of various systems of syntony as illustrated by grouping behavior among social animals, specifically, schooling among fish and flocking among birds; a consideration of cases in which expressions of the syntony sense are evident in human behavior; and an evaluation of the potential inherent in syntony as a means of empowering individuals and groups to engage in life-long transformative learning toward sustainable pathways of human social development in accord with broader life processes on Earth.

Key Words: Syntony, evolutionary learning community, evolutionary systems design, sustainable development, individual and group empowerment.

Out Into Wild Aliveness... How Do I Pack For The Journey?

Frank R. (Bob) Kull
2366 W. 18th Ave.
Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6l 1A8

I’m an old fool who has returned to school to make sense of my thoughts and, perhaps, get a PhD in the process. Just recently, a friend told me about this conference and suggested I might want to submit an idea for a presentation. At first I thought, “Nah, I don’t know enough about systems theory.” But then I asked one of my committee members what he thought and he said, “Go for it. Talk about what you don’t know, that way you’ll learn something.”

This opens up a vast landscape. But there are two things I don’t know that I’d particularly like to know - if they are knowable: 1. How can the boundary between ‘ordinary’ consciousness and ‘mystic’ consciousness become more porous and how can I learn to catalyze the shift between the two in myself and in others. 2. What does this altered perspective mean for science?

For my fieldwork, I will retreat into solitude in the wilderness for 12 months and document the experience. Previous shorter retreats have resulted in a shift of consciousness. No longer a disembodied observer existing outside a lifeless world, seeking meaning in something beyond my immediate experience, I have become fully Alive and embedded in the living universe, the meaning of which is present in living itself. In this state everything is filled with wonder.

From this altered perspective I can ‘see’ the structure of the mind I normally inhabit. That mind seems to apprehend a conceptual description of the world rather than directly experiencing the flow of Life. While the notion of ‘map and territory’ may be simplistic, it does reflect my lived experience of this perceptual shift.

The science I have learned belongs, I think, to that world of description rather than to the living world. When lost in the wonder of the moment, science feels irrelevant to me. While I wonder about everything I see (especially why we’re here at all), structured questions concerning how the world works find no toehold. When I begin to seek explanation, I lose the experience of flow. Yet, theorizing is part of the living world, and it should be possible to bridge the gap between Living and Theorizing. How to do this is one of the things I don’t know. Will any attempt at conceptualization dam the flow?

After exploring how to catalyze the shift of consciousness during 25 years, I’m still back where I began. Surrender. The only way I know to become caught in the flow of Life is through personal surrender. Yet daily living often requires goals, plans, intentional activity. How can these apparently contradictory orientations be integrated? These are questions I would like to explore during my presentation and following discussion.

Anticipatory Aspects in Neuronet Type Models for Social Design
Geopolitical Applications

Sergey Levkov and Alexander Makarenko
New Jersey Institute of Technology, Electrical and Computer Engineering
University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102

Following D.Dubois, 1997, we define anticipatory systems as systems with intrinsic images of future external situation and internal states of system. In this aspect, considering the World as a large complex system, we can come to a conclusion of a society as an anticipatory system. The same assertion can be made about the individuals as the elements of society. This approach is relatively new and in presented report we will discuss the ideas and principles of construction of such neuronet type of models and their geopolitical applications. Some details of this approach were reported in last year authors’ papers Makarenko, 98, Levkov 98. The new important aspect that is included in the model of society here, is anticipatory property of human systems.

In previous publications, the description of general principles and construction of simple models was based on exploiting the external properties and interconnection structure between the elements of a system. Briefly, the idea consisted in considering an associative memory model where the single element of the associative memory corresponds to a single element of the complex system. Accounting for the internal structure of basic elements opens the way to considering yet another layer of properties of society: describing models in this framework allows considering anticipatory aspects of social systems.

To describe briefly the main idea, let us consider an individual element of society. Its behaviour is determined by two components: external mean field of influence and internal dynamics of the individual. The internal driving force partially accounts for the willing of an individual. To describe this part of dynamics we use the similar neuronet type models as for the interconnection of elements into the large system, proposed earlier.

We denote the pattern of society Q(t) --“image of real world” at discrete moment of time t as a set of element states of all elements and interconnecting bonds. We also introduce Qiwish(t) - a “desirable image of world at moment t by individual i”. Then we assume that the change of that individual state depends on difference between real and desirable image of the world. The next step consists in comparing wished images of world with the real images of world in moments t, (t+1), (t+2), …, (t+g(i)). The parameters {g(i)} define the horizons of anticipation. Based on this anticipated divergence, the laws of the dynamics for the state of individual are constructed and then combined with the dynamics driven by the mean field of influence between the elements. This type of models brings few new aspects and problems requiring further consideration such as multivaluedness of solutions inherent to the non-linear systems, hyperincursion in terminology of Dubois, 1998, multivalued operators (as in differential games), which poses the problems of attractors of multivalued mappings, interesting parallels with quantum mechanics.

The application field, where the anticipatory aspects can be successfully exploited is geopolitical modeling based on the principles of associated memory. We consider here as an example modeling the evolution of geopolitical structures (GPS) in the post cold war Europe.
Associated with each country we introduce the state variable, which, depending on the level of details, may be a single parameter--power of a state, or a vector of parameters (economic, political, military, demographic, etc.). At the initial stage only the exogenous components of power is considered, i.e. the projection of real power on the power of a block. Then the connections between the states, which form a matrix of appropriate dimension, are considered. The bonds formalize in a way the influence of each country within a block, and, being positive and negative indicate the degree of attraction of countries to each other and their ability to form a union. To define dynamic laws governing the evolution of GPS, we suggest using the associative memory type of evolution laws with modifications necessary to accommodate the specifics of the GPS such as barriers of inertia, geographic coefficients, etc. One of the most essential problems in building a successful model is evaluation of connections. The essential feature of neuronet type models is their learning ability and existence appropriate procedures for this, which take into account the mean field of influence from surrounding countries in the system. In our case the learning images are some stable patterns in the history of geopolitical relations in a considered modeling region. It is important that the learning procedure implicitly take into account the notion of global culture of society and all prehistory of foreign relations.

The case study is illustrated with computer simulation results which show different configurations possible in the GPS structure in Europe under different conditions.

The Necessity for Understanding and Designing Humanistic Social Systems

Gregory LaPointe
International Systems Institute
Asilomar Design Conversation Community
18264 N 144th Ave.
Surprise, AZ 85374

Throughout the span of human life, all individuals grow up and live under the dynamic influence of interacting groups of social systems. Social systems are and always will be designed to operate under sets of explicit and implicit values. These values, once adopted by its members, are supposed to focus members on prescribed activities of the social system. The values of the social system are also intended to engage the surrounding human and non-human environment into behaviors that assist, promote, or permit the accomplishment of social system purposes. Social systems are found in every aspect of human social life and they exert enormous pressures upon people to adopt behaviors preferred by the social system.

When social systems are well designed, they operate to advance the common good, facilitating and guiding human development toward society's desirable ideals or values. A badly designed social system means that it operates with behaviors and activities that essentially work against the best interests of its members as well as people living in the surrounding environment. Badly designed social systems implicitly, explicitly and routinely contribute to human diminution and help make society and its culture "sick." They help cause healthy ways of living to collapse by implicitly or explicitly attacking or undermining healthy human development and the important standards/values that serve to guide quality-of-life and healthy ways of living. Thus, when destructiveness, sadism, cruelty, malice, or other human dysfunction's are on the increase in a given society, one can usually confidently infer that badly designed (including corrupt, or amoral social systems and institutions) are dominant in it. Generally, social system entities (especially the amoral and corrupt), once brought to life, installed and operational in a society, will battle savagely rather than perish in the environment in which they have embedded themselves. A society is wise when it remembers that it authorizes and legitimizes social systems because it expects social systems purposes to explicitly or implicitly benefit the general citizenry or society.

This paper seeks to add to the growing body of knowledge of social systems and their design by encouraging awareness and understanding of some of social systems more social-systemic features and attributes. The notion will be advanced that a more humanistic view of social systems, social system types, and their design is fundamentally necessary. This is particularly true for planning and designing more stable, predictable and humanistic social systems in the twenty-first century-- ones which help advance human society toward quality-of-life and higher economic, spiritual, and personal/social levels. Generic social systemic features of social systems will be proposed and linked to humanistic perspectives. Social-systemic attributes and features will be illustrated through examples of some Native American cultural systems. One example of a process of design inquiry for the design of social systems will also be introduced.

Evolutionary Learning Community Inquiry: Theoretical background and core definitions

Kathia C. Laszlo
Syntony Quest
1761 Vallejo Street, Suite 302
San Francisco, CA 94123-5029


Evolutionary Learning Community inquiry (ELCi) is a field of disciplined, creative and participatory action-research. It seeks to develop the competencies and sensitivities in individuals and groups that empower them to purposefully design experiences of community as learning oriented, self-directed, and environmentally sustainable. This paper sketches out the three main components of the conceptual base upon which ELCi rests: 1) insights from the sciences of complexity-such as emergence and self-organization, which inform the process of inquiry; 2) the human science tradition-in particular some aspects of critical theory, feminism, and the participatory paradigm, which guide the content in terms of social transformation and human emancipation; and 3) systems thinking-which supports the integrative and transdisciplinary nature of the inquiry. In addition, the key terms that define ELCi are identified and explained. It is hoped that this exposition will aid in efforts to understand and enhance social systems design endeavors that seek to create the conditions for partnership culture to arise.

The vital balance

Nils O. Larsson
Kaptensgatan 21
414 59 Goteborg, Sweden

I have been using the decision concept for diagnosing organizations in order to give a normative as well as an actual description of the decision settings. The most important decisions are derived from the purpose or goal of the organization and what factors are the most important for reaching the goal. I have also studied the settings for the decision maker and what can influence his/her decision making. This led me into studying the mental processes in human decision making. We know from experience and from literature that the most catastrophic events are not caused by technical failures but by faulty human decision making.
This interest indicated the need for knowing how decisions can be influenced in different organizational settings and also what conditions can influence the human decision process.
The paper describes a model based on a systemic analysis of the mental decision process.
The model is based on knowledge from neurology, neurobiology, psychiatry, psychology, and systems theories. The model can explain how a human being’s decision making is influenced by pscyhic stress and stimulation, traumatic experiences, fobias, drugs and medicins, smoking etc.
The model can explain some bizarre decision making by managers and it can also indicate why atlets sometimes succeed and sometimes fail for example during the Olympic Games.
The variables used in this model are decision perspectives, decision ability or activity and the mental development level. The model can give an explanation of the conditions for a normal behavior as well as a tentative explanation of pathological behavior. The model regards all brain activities as decisions where the main part is automatic and the rest concious decisions.

Attitudes to Environmental Action at the Household Level in Cali Colombia

Emilio Latorre
Universidad del Valle
Cali Colombia

This paper is based in the idea that in order to change the behavior of a person in relationship with consumerism and environmental impacts, it is important to have an idea of how people are behaving, their values and their needs and perceptions, in order to change this behavior. In Cali, Colombia a work has been done in the medium and lower income levels in order to measure this behavior through a simple instrument. This evaluation takes into account several aspects of ones life, like the nutritional habits, energy and water consumption, their behavior with animals (wild and domestic) and their buying and consuming habits. This instrument takes into account a systemic view of the person and its relationship to its environment. Finally the paper presents some conclusions of what could be done to change values and habits that could give another approach to the way in which people think about development and quality of life.

A systemic model to evaluate the small peasant farm in Colombia from a sustainability perspective

Emilio Latorre and Hector Palacios
Universidad del Valle
Cali Colombia

This paper presents a new approach to the evaluation of a small peasant farms in poor rural areas in Colombia. It takes into account not only the market oriented approach of the "green revolution" but also the evaluation of sustainability in terms of land protection, biodiversity and alternative ways of having enough resources and products made in the farm for the family consumption. The model includes also family relationship considerations and self-reliance. It was designed through a set of several workshops that included systemic group exercises with peasants and technicians that give assistance to small farmers in Colombia. Finally the model was tested in twelve small farms. The model is implemented through indicators that work up from a low level and by a number of aggregations and weighs give finally a global performance index.

In Search of Alternative Socio-political paradigms for Latin America:
a Preliminary Systemic Reflection

En Busca de Paradigmas Socio Politicos Alternos Para America Latina:
una Reflexion Sistemica Preliminar

Hernán López-Garay
Departamento de Sistemologia Interpretativa, Escuela de Sistemas
Universidad de Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela

A major theme of SISTEMICA´99 is: “Paradigms for viable Latin American organizations and societies in the twentieth first century”. This theme makes one wonder why should we, systems thinkers, be thinking about societal paradigms at all. Is it not the case that the neo-liberal model of society, which is being implanted all over Latin America (and the globe), is the right model to follow? I take it that for the organizers of SISTEMICA-99 this is not the case, and therefore their invitation to discuss theses issues. If, as I strongly believe, authentic systems thinking can be nothing but “critical” (in the Kantian sense of unfolding the presuppositions underlying our paradigms), then nothing more appropriate for systems thinkers, particularly Latin Americans, than to critically question their present socio-political paradigms and by so doing to open new vistas which can help us find better ways of life for our people. The present paper aims to make a small contribution in this direction. Starting from the systemic assumption that we cannot examine the neo-liberal paradigm in Latin America in isolation of the global context which is propounding it, first I intend to show that the project of globalizing the neo-liberal order is not viable. Second, in the light of this critique, a big question mark is opened for the viability of the neo-liberal paradigm in Latin America. The scene is then set for a reflection on alternative socio-political paradigms for our countries within a global context.

Key Words: neo-liberal paradigm, globalization, critical systems thinking, alternative socio-political paradigms


Uno de los temas principales de la conferencia SISTEMICA´99 se relaciona con la búsqueda de paradigmas sociales y organizacionales viables para la América Latina del siglo 21. Este tema le hace a uno preguntarse por qué los pensadores de sistemas deberían estar preocupados por la búsqueda de paradigmas sociales alternos. ¿Es que acaso el modelo de sociedad neo-liberal que se está implantando en todo el globo, incluyendo a Latino América, no es el apropiado para nuestros países? Aparentemente para los organizadores de SISTEMICA 97 esta es una suposición que debería cuestionarse, y los fundamentos de la misma deberían ser expuestos. Nada más acorde para un congreso de sistemas, pues recordemos que el enfoque de sistemas tiene un linaje precisamente crítico (v.gr. destapar los supuestos del dualismo reduccionista (fragmentador) y presentar una visión contraria (holista) del mundo). De su origen hereda entonces el enfoque de sistemas la necesidad de abordar el estudio de los fenómenos desplegando las condiciones que lo hacen posible como tal, es decir, revelando lo que lo fundamenta y lo presenta unitariamente (y que por tanto le da su carácter sistémico). En su origen también radica el interés del movimiento de sistemas por oponerse a la mirada reduccionista y fragmentadora del mundo, y su afán por buscar unidad total en todo lo que atrae su mirada. Fiel a este interés y espíritu crítico del enfoque de sistemas, el presente artículo pretende ser una reflexión sistémica preliminar orientada al destape de los fundamentos del modelo neoliberal y al despliegue de su interés fragmentador. Este destape permitirá dibujar por contraste un posible paradigma socio políticos alterno para la América Latina, un paradigma que, como veremos, está animado por un interés sistémico. El problema de cómo facilitar el dialogo entre paradigmas opuestos es tratado en la parte final del artículo. Este problema es crucial, si queremos alcanzar un orden mundial distinto al neoliberal por vías diferentes a las de la fuerza y la extorsión económica. El posible costo de no hacerlo es brevemente reseñado en las conclusiones.

Key Words: paradigma neo liberal, globalización, pensamiento critico de sistemas, paradigmas socio - políticos alternativos

A Study on Systems Education to Build the Sustainable Ecological Community

Dr. Beom Woong Lee
Inha University
#253 Yong Hyun-dong, Nam-Ku
Inchon 402-751, Korea

The aim of this article is to make clear the relation between ecosystem and community and then look for how the law of ecosystem operates to maintain the sustainable community. Modern people are required a series of ethical codes to maintain the sustainable ecological community and to be adapted to these situations.

I'll try to explain why oriental ethics is required in building the sustainable community. Finally, this article focuses on system education as means of maintaining the sustainable ecological community.

Keywords : Complex System, Self-organizing, Ecosystem, Ecological Community,
Oriental Spirit, System Education

Developing Integrated Social Policies to Support the
Emotional Well Being of Children

Constance M. Lehman
Child Welfare Partnership
Graduate School of Social Work
Portland State University
Portland, Oregon

This paper describes the paradigm shift that is taking place in the United States among professionals and community members who provide formal and informal support for children and youth who have emotional problems. For more than three decades, policy makers and service providers have developed legislation, training programs, and service delivery systems for children and youth within the confines of discipline specific administrative departments, institutions of higher education, and social service agencies. Historically, education, health, child welfare, children’s mental health, and juvenile justice disciplines have created and nurtured exclusive rather than inclusive ways of addressing the needs of children and youth. The categorical approach to health and human services resulted in the availability of highly specialized professionals. However, a growing number of policy makers, researchers, practitioners, and parents strongly believe that effective support for children, youth, and families requires an integration of the public systems that are mandated to provide services.

The transformation from a categorically designed system to an integrated system is evolutionary. The shift occurs within the context of the political, economic, and social milieu. This paper describes the process of developing a social awareness of these realities and how they interact to maintain the existing institutional design. In addition, the similarities and differences in the underlying assumptions and values of categorical and integrated approaches are discussed, followed by recommendations for ensuring that critical stakeholders are aware of these relationships. The paper concludes with a discussion of how to proceed with efforts to fundamentally change how federal, state, and local agencies and community members support children and youth who have emotional problems.

New Developments in the Team Syntegrity Process

Allenna Leonard,
34 Palmerston Square
Toronto, ON M6G 2S7 Canada
allenna@ibm.net or 73500.3214@compuserve.com

The Syntegration process, described in the book "Beyond Dispute" by Stafford Beer in 1994, (and presented at the last Asilomar Meeting) has undergone further applications and development.
More than one hundred Syntegration events have been held so far on four continents. They have been used to examine diverse topics including how increase the relevance of unions to young people, how to coordinate response to the Y2K challenge, and how to govern the city of London (England). The diversity of events has expanded to include smaller groups of people operating in shorter time periods while retaining the focus on twelve topics and a three dimensional geometric relationship among them based on the icosahedron and its included forms - the cubeoctahedron,
the octahedron and the tetrahedron.

Sharing tacit as well as explicit knowledge, bonding among teams and community formation are among the additional benefits of the time spent integrating information in a non-hierarchical, role
equivalent process.

Information Support Requirements for Implementing Adaptive
Ecosystem Management

Ariel G. Leonard
9945 W. Redtail Rd.
Flagstaff, AZ 86001

There has been a long history of manipulation and disturbance of the ecological systems in which we live. Many land management agencies, including the U.S. Forest Service have endorsed the concept of adaptive ecosystem management as the new management paradigm. This approach recognizes the dynamic multidisciplinary nature of ecosystems and the need to continuously adjust management in response to new information. The mechanisms for collecting, storing, and analyzing information used by the Forest Service are currently inadequate to support the adaptive management function. In this paper, I discuss some of the obstacles and potential tools for implementing adaptive management. A better understanding of the effects of management actions can guide the development of practices that restore and sustain ecosystem health.

Dualistic Imprints of Culture

Aleksandr Levintov
201 Glenwood Circle 3B
Monterey, CA 93940 USA

Systemic concepts of culture are dualistic. In the "activity"; interpretation culture is a set of norms that describe activity. In this sense culture is included into the system-forming process of reproduction. The translated culture is presented as a civilizing stream of norms.

At the same time culture is evidently non-translatable and is preserved, kept in place by the "genius loci", the geomantic knots; culture has a sacral origin and is realized as values, taboos, and limitations of activities. The morphologically sacral and the "activity-related" things in culture are indistinguishable and inseparable. In kashrut, the Judaic rules of cooking and nutrition, what comes from generalized historical experience and what is colored by spirituality? Equally, in an icon, what is canonical, and what comes from the painter's art? The problem of virtuosity (spiritual honesty) and of the masterpiece (reproduction of the art to a new norm) remains the most important in the development of every culture, for the problem also could be formulated like this: in a masterpiece, what comes from God, and what comes from the craft? Also, in virtuosity, what comes from inspiration, and what comes from sweat? -- Evidently, the dualism we are now considering acquires the character of a structural principle of the organization of cultural morphology. Multiplication which is so typical of human civilization, especially its modern period, saturated with technologies and infrastructures, however, leaves some place for the unique and the non-translatable in culture. Moreover, the more narrow the unique space in the general flow of the reproducing culture, the deeper our attention to this uniqueness, the more obvious it is. This is especially evident in the Internet literature and the Internet art, for instance.

Cultural interactivity, conflict and confusion are, hence, of an ostensible character. They are either stylistically eclectic or simply a lacking-in-taste mixture of alien elements in the native cultural substrate. The functional homeostasis of the spiritual contents of culture does not prevent the reshuffle (or the progress, if we assume the teleological paradigm) of the reproduction cycles: the Russian matryoshka has acquired the usages unrecognizable for the Scythians, but does not deviate much from the symbolism of the Scythian-Amazonian matriarchy, and thousands of years later Vassily Rosanov continues to confirm the feminine character of Russia.

In the metageographic interpretation this is the problem of the dualism of the notions of 'motherland" (something given to us) and "fatherland"(something we make ourselves). The dramatic events that have been developing in Russia for the recent decade (and will be developing for the decades to come) are the tragedy of cultural dualism. In this play humans are playing the roles of bad stage props.

A General Evolutionary Perspective on Sustainable
Development: Working Model of a General
Evolutionary Methodology

Sang W. Hwang
Environmental Studies Program
Sweet Briar College
Sweet Briar Virginia 24595 USA

In this paper, I draw upon theory from the field of general evolutionary sciences (including chaos theory, complexity science, and nonlinear thermodynamics) for developing a framework for understanding emerging sustainable development systems. I translate this emerging theoretical worldview to a general evolutionary methodology for the analysis of sustainable development strategies. In this paper, as a way of transdisciplinary synthesis, I present the concepts of nonlinear interdependence, self-organization, and qualitative evolution that functions as an interpretive framework for analysis complex dynamic systems. More importantly, I have translated the general evolutionary paradigm to a methodological focus, identifying three methodological components - structural, process and transformational components.

Key words: Complex Systems, Environmental Planning, General Evolutionary Methodology, Sustainable Development.

Goals and Perspectives in the Design of Human Activity

Nils O. Larsson
Senior lecturer
University of Skövde, Sweden

This paper discusses the serious problem of a need for a wider perspective applied to our societal decisions and the tendency for a reduced perspective in the human individual’s decision making. The concept of goal and perspective are discussed and a proposal for a general perspective in several levels from the aspect of the individual’s decision making abilities. The necessary coordination between the goal and the perspective is discussed as well as questions as ”Can we have an unlimited perspective?” and ”Can an organization have more than one goal?”. The author is suggesting further research particularly within the individual decision maker’s decision making abilities under various conditions.

Keywords: Goals, perspectives, organizations, individuals, decision-making


Understanding of Institutional Change from Complex Systems Perspective

Sung Chull Kim
Korea Institute for National Unification
SL Tobong P.O.Box 22
Seoul, 142-600, KOREA

Based on the understanding of current status of the theories of institution, which now takes special attention in social science community, this paper will attempt to explain persistence and change of institution from the complex systems perspective.

Whatever the type of theories on the institution may be, they are not so much interested in the explanation of dynamism of institution, driving force and path of the institutional change. Whereas sociologist version of institution emphasizes the embedded setting for its constraining role in human behavior, the rational choice interpretation of institution focuses on interaction between institution and individual actors. Even when showing attention to the change of institution, each attributes the driving force for change to different and factor, external or internal factor, and thus misses complex interactive phenomena in the process of transformation.

The institutional dynamism could be better explained from the complex systems perspective. On the one hand, the notions such as coevolution and evolution are able to provide the better scheme for explaining the path dependence. On the other, the notion of autopoiesis helps us develop a generalization about the innate economy of persistence and maintenance of institution.

Key words: autopoiesis, coevolution, evolution, institution, institutional
change, path dependence


A complex systems approach to modeling for analyzing the revolutions;
from the 2nd Republic of Korea in 1961

Hyuk-Kihl Kwon
Chungbuk National Univ professor
Sinbanpo 4cha Apt. 202-207
Jamwon-Dong 70. Seocho-Gu
Seoul. Korea 137-030

The properties of complex systems are change, growth and death, possibly form of life cycle. Also we can make a list of some of the characteristics of complex systems which are elements, interactions and formation/operation, diversity/variability, environment and activities.

The revolution is a product of the complex systems. Also social scientific theories have been interested in revolutions, uprisings or breakdown of political systems on a abstract and grand-scale level. But, they have not paid due attention to the explanation of the process of revolutions or the breakdown of authority structure on the integrative level. Therefore, this research paper attempts to make a complex systems approach to modeling for analyzing the revolution. It's concrete explanations are derived from the 2nd Republic of Korea in 1961.

Of course, I owe its intellectual insight to David Easton's political systems theory, Yong-Pil Rhee's model of the breakdown of authority structure and Yaneer Bar-Yam's explanation about the complex systems . Some of their suggestions are used to make the integrative model. Therefore, I intended to make a integrative model to explain the revolution in the view of complex systems.

key words : complex systems, political systems, tolerance level, critical level, demand stress, support stress

Balascopy-based General Systems Technology:
Theory, Methodology and Practical Tools

Vadim I. Kvitash,
Department of General Internal Medicine, School of Medicine,
University of California at San Francisco
2299 Post Street Medical Building, Suite 306, San Francisco, California 94115

New theories and technologies frequently promise the moon - but they don’t always deliver. Initially, they may appear to be a miracle tool; however, as it works its way toward practical application, the luster often dims. This is not the case with Balascopy. Balascopy (Balance + Scope) is an axiomatic General Systems Theory, Methodology and Systems Tools for detection, identification, representation and assessment of specific Systems Features in natural, man-made or human-conducted super-complex systems with presently unpredictable dynamics and outcomes.

This presentation will define and demonstrate the following:
Systems Space and Natural Systems Equivalent Units
Complex Systems Features: Systems Control, Systems Regulation, Systems Coordination and seven distinct types of complex interactions among them
Systems States: Balance vs. Out-of-Balance; Simple Imbalances vs. Complex Dysbalances in the form of Linears, Loops, Fans, Webs, Spheres and their combinations
Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Meta-Networks of Systems Dysfunction
Ten levels of severity of Systems Dysfunction and their measurement and representation
Abstract High-Dimensional Systems Spaces and pragmatic
use of 66-D Systems Space
Balascopy can provide a new type of useful System Knowledge which is not available from any other currently existing modalities.

Keywords: Balascopy, Systems Features, System Equivalent Units, Meta-Networks of Dysfunctions


Adding Balascopy-based General Systems Feature
to What is Known in Liver Diseases

Vadim I. Kvitash,
Department of General Internal Medicine, School of Medicine,
University of California at San Francisco
2299 Post Street Medical Building, Suite 306, San Francisco, California 94115

It is a known fact, that in general, determination of routinely ordered tests for liver functions are not specific for liver diseases. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate methodology and domain-free tools for mining diagnostic and prognostic information from non-specific biochemical variables routinely used in a clinical assessment of liver diseases even if test results are seemingly normal.

For simultaneous (1) quantitative, (2) qualitative, (3) relational, and (4) directional evaluation of interactions among multiple data points, their values translate into Natural System Equivalent Units scaled from 0 to 100, allowing direct measurements of their multiple imbalances/dysbalances in multi-dimensional space. Information from twelve-dimensional metabolic spaces are represented as meta-networks of six distinct types of homeostatic Systems Dysfunctions. These multiple metabolic dysfunctions are defined and designated as follows:
Systems Inversion
Systems Simple Inversion
Systems Integration
Systems Inverted Integration
Systems Disintegration
Systems Inverted Disintegration

All six types of homeostatic Systems Dysfunctions are represented as a cascade of six meta-network windows of simple biochemical imbalances and multiple metabolic dysbalances.

These tools identified previously unknown patterns of biochemical imbalances in eighteen different liver diseases.

Balascopy provides a whole new understanding of systemic disruption of metabolic functions underlying hepatopathology. It represents, evaluates, and measures metabolic processes as an entirely integrated system. This technology can assist in making truly Evidenced-Based Diagnostic and Treatment Decisions.

Keywords: Balascopy, Systems Feature in Liver Diseases Biochemistry, Meta-Networks

Compatibility with the Organization’s Functions as a goal of Information Systems Design

Roberto R Kampfner
Computer and Information Science Department
College of Engineering and Computer Science
The University of Michigan-Dearborn
Dearborn, Michigan 48128

A salient characteristic of biological systems is that they process information in a manner that is highly compatible with their functions. This compatibility stems from the fact that the processes underlying the performance of biological function are, if not essentially the same, very closely related to those that actually process the information, Due to this compatibility, information processing supports biological function in a highly effective manner. The support provided by biological information processing is effective in the sense that the ability of a biological system to perform its functions is not reduced, but maintained or even enhanced, by its information-processing system. Clearly, this effectiveness is a result of biological evolution. After all, biological systems that don’t perform well because of deficiencies in their information processing capabilities, or for any other reason, are eventually discarded by natural selection. An important capability of biological information processing is its ability to support biological adaptability. An adaptable system needs not only to perform well in the face of the current environmental conditions, but be prepared to continue performing well despite the uncertainty of its environment. The need of adaptability therefore imposes additional demands on the information processing capabilities of systems.

The compatibility with the functions being supported is perhaps the characteristic of biological information processing that contributes the most to its ability to provide such a high degree of function support [Kampfner, 1997]. In this paper I explore the implications of using the compatibility of the information processing system with the functions that use the information as a goal for the development of information systems in organizations. The idea of using the function-support concept as a paradigm of information systems development has been discussed elsewhere [Kampfner, 1997]. Here I shall explore more closely the applicability of the function-support concept to the development of information systems.

The effectiveness of the support provided by an information processing system is of course very difficult to measure in any direct manner. In particular, the evaluation of the compatibility of an information processing system with the organizational functions it supports presents difficult challenges. The approach proposed here considers two kinds of compatibility: One is the compatibility with the structure of the functions being supported; the other is the compatibility with the dynamics of the processes that implement the functions. The consideration of these two types of compatibility presents a number of advantages. The first is that it provides a focus for the evaluation of very specific aspects of design. Structural compatibility focuses more on the architecture of the information system. The compatibility with the dynamics of the organizational functions, on the other hand, focuses on the interaction with the system (i.e. the design of the user interface), the design of the processes, and performance issues such as response times, throughput, turnaround times, and the like.

The compatibility of the information processing system with the structure of the organization and its functions can be achieved and evaluated with tools such as the organizational control systems modeling (OCSM) framework. [Kampfner, 1987]. This paper briefly discusses this tool, how it can be used to model and describe the structure of particular organizations and the impact of specific structures on their adaptability. The compatibility of the information system with the dynamics of organizational function depends heavily on the consistency of the algorithms and the information-processing methods used with the dynamics of the processes underlying the function being supported. Process design, the design of the user interface, and the modes of information processing used by the computer-based information system are therefore especially important. Intuitively, the compatibility of information processing with the dynamics of the processes underlying organizational function allows for a seamless communication between the organization-based and computer-based realms of information processing. The fact that the user interface handles the interaction between these two realms makes it an essential player and, consequently, its design critically important. Equally important, however, is the design of the process, including the “modes” of information processing used by the computer-based system.

The interplay of structure and dynamics in systems is highly relevant to our topic. This paper will also explore this issue, and its implications for the analysis and design of information systems in modern organizations.


Information Systems
Based on 2nd Order Knowledge Bases

Magdalena A. Kalaidjieva
Institute of Control and System Research
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
PO Box 119, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria

“A good medicine against love at first
sight is the second glance” - Folk saying

Abstract: Modern science has presented both the need of semantic knowledge units, the methods how to point out the novelty and methodological role of such a unit in the growing complexity of research processes. It has also elaborated methodology for analysing and designing general hierarchies reflecting the paths of human thought and behaviour, creativity and applying the results of them in reality. Knowledge units are used both in management information systems and scientific-technological information systems, although in different ways and for different purposes, but they become and have all the time been the binding eye between them. Teaching and training to formulate, place properly and read methodological knowledge units follows the ancient traditions of science creativity, of generating new knowledge reflecting properly the real world for practical purposes. The experience to visualize cause-consequence relations among research projects showed the advances of planning their funding, but conceived all difficulties resulting from ignorance of some features of complexity, congregated in the concept of general hierarchies. Methodological units of knowledge are discussed as methods and tools of displaying and reading written science from the view point of methodology, of true knowledge generation and implementation. It is explained in common term as the possibility of a second glance and a third one, needed for better comprehension, but not possible in previous forms of culture of scientific writings.


Information Processing as an Aspect of the Dynamics of the Processes Underlying Function

Roberto R. Kampfner
Computer and Information Science Department
College of Engineering and Computer Science
The University of Michigan-Dearborn
Dearborn, Michigan 48128

The view of information processing as an aspect of the dynamics of the processes underlying function provides a uniform framework for the study of information and information processing at various levels of biological and human organization. This view is consistent with a broad notion of information and information processing that allows for the study of natural and artificial information processing within a uniform framework. In this paper we propose the use this view as a framework to analyze the role of information in practically any context. This framework is consistent with a broad notion of computation, one that ascribes some kind of computational power to any particular dynamic process. It can be used to analyze information-processing related issues at various scales of information processing in biological systems, and at various levels of biological organization [Kampfner, 1998]. At the biological level of human populations, for example, issues arising in connection with information-processing issues of social systems and, in particular, human organizations, can be studied with the help of this framework.

Using a broad notion of computation that encompasses both natural and artificial computing we focus on a trait common to all purposeful dynamic processes: they use information to guide their behavior. The notion of computation used here ascribes computational power to any dynamic process in the sense that any such process computes at least its own dynamics. M. Conrad [1985] explained this idea in relation to a strong form of the Turing-Church thesis that asserts that any physical process can be simulated by a Turing Machine [Hofstadter, 1979]. The equivalence between dynamics and computation that the strong form of the Turing-Church thesis suggests can also be interpreted as conferring some kind of computational power to all physical processes.

There are essential differences between algorithmic computation, and that performed by the physical processes. Most notably, while algorithmic computation is performed with a general-purpose computing device, a particular physical process performs a very specific kind of computation. A consequence of this is that the algorithms used for the simulation of physical processes are, in most cases, of a great computational complexity. In contrast with this, the computations performed by the physical processes themselves, since they result from the dynamics of such processes in a natural way, can be considered less computationally complex than their algorithmic counterparts. Another difference relates to the adaptability of information processing. According to M. Conrad’s tradeoff principle [Conrad, 1985], in any information-processing system there is always a tradeoff between adaptability and programmability. The tradeoff principle places natural computing processes, such as molecular computing, which are inherently adaptable, and algorithmic computation, which is programmable, at the two ends of an adaptability-programmability continuum.

Despite the specificity that in general characterizes the computational capabilities of physical processes, there is a trait common to all of them; namely, that all of them use information to guide their behavior in order to achieve their specific purpose. This common purpose and the notion of computation as an aspect of the dynamics of physical processes are what give uniformity to our framework. Of the many issues that viewing information processing as an aspect of the dynamics of natural and artificial systems helps us to analyze, this paper focuses on the study of the compatibility between artificial and natural computing in adaptive systems, such as organizations. Especially important, in this respect, is that the computations performed by physical processes are not only specific in purpose, but that the fact that they are part of the dynamics of these processes makes these computations highly compatible with them. Clearly, these computations can be said to support these processes in an effective manner. The paper will discuss issues related to this compatibility in some detail.

Virtual Logic and The Flagg Resolution

Louis H. Kauffman
University of Illinois at Chicago

Virtual logic stands outside the logic of true and false and points to that domain from which Reason springs forth. This talk will discuss the theme of virtual logic in relation to second order cybernetics, process theory and the methods of paradox resolution (the Flagg Resolution)
pioneered by James Flagg and the speaker.

Our method of paradox resolution is a direct descendant of Ludwig Wittgenstein's injunction to solve problems as they arise. "...it is vitally important to see that a contradiction is not a germ which shows general illness." [L. Wittgenstein. Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics. edited by Cora Diamond, Cornell Univ. Press (1976). Lecture XXI, p. 211]. In the Flagg resolution we give a method whereby one can take a seemingly contradictory entity at face value, modify the mode by which we indicate that entity (the way we engage in substitution and reference to the entity), and retain standard logical discourse.

The practical consequence of this move is of great importance for the foundations of information science. On the one hand the Resolution is a formal move that allows the discourse to continue to flow forward. On the other hand the issue of deeper understanding is placed squarely in the hands of the person or observer in the system. The responsibility is in the hands of the observer. The mathematics is in the hands of the mathematician. Formal systems and computer systems are aids in the flow of communication, but the responsibility goes to the observer. It is the observer who initiates the creative process by distinguishing the space and indicating its contents. It is the observer who stands to gain or lose in the dialogue about consistency and continuation of the conversation.

In Mathematics a theorem is proved when it becomes evident. The proof is not a matter of true and false; it is a matter of coherent indication. What is indicated is a collection of (from the stance of the mathematician) indisputable distinctions that cohere into the conclusion that is the theorem. Reason and logic are seen within this coherence. The theorem is not proved by logic or reason. The distinctions that constitute the proof are not a matter of dispute. They are agreed upon by the community of mathematicians, and are each reproducible by every individual in that group. It is exactly because proof goes beyond true and false that the gambit of proof by contradiction can be taken. The mathematical universe is not fragile. It will not collapse in the face of an apparent contradiction any more than the discovery of Russell's paradox caused bridges to fall.

We stand on the other side of the watershed of Godel's Theorem. No single machine, nosingle formal system can encompass the acts of Reason. We must act responsibly in an endless creation of such systems and the patterns that can be generated with them. Any attempt at founding a general theory of information science -- especially those building on "objective" concepts of information -- must take these facts into consideration.

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