ABSTRACTS


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Section M to O

Pedro Makabe The Systemic Complexity as Organizational Paradigm of Democratic
Living in Latin America
La Complejidad Sistémica como Paradigma Organizacional del
Convivir Democrático en América Latina

Tom Mandel Mom? What's the General System? The Simplest Complexity

Tom Mandel Perspectualism; Bela Banathy Sr.'s Zoom Lens, A Multi-perspectual Glance

Doug McDavid Living Model for Enterprise Information Systems

Michael McElwee, Behavioral Complexity and Cultural Evolution
from an Empirical Base

Donna DeWitt McGarry Conditions Under Which Partnership Cultures May Emerge

Michael McKibbin and Lawrie Reavill Resolution of Conflict in Northern Ireland - A Systemic Analysis

Curt McNamara Geometric Systems Design

Gary S. Metcalf A Critique of Social Systems Theory

Danielle Mihram and G. Arthur Mihram Communications and Living Systems

Gianfranco Minati Knowledge for Beings Able to Design
Conocimiento Para Seres Capaces de Diseñar

Alfonso Montuori Complexity and the Evolution of Planetary Culture

Clemencia Morales Complementarity Of The Goal-Based, The Systems Resource And
Multiactor Evaluation Methodologies

Valeri A.Nikanorov A Cognitive Expertize Throughout Modern Disciplinary
Chemistries: A True Invaluable Verificational Treasure for the Developing Duality Theory

Valeri A.Nikanorov Obvious and Hidden in Systems: Things, their Interrelations, ... and
Going On Further. An Overcoming One 125-Yearlong Stereochemical Duality Paradox and its Interdisciplinary Generalization

Roumiana Nikolaeva-Hubenova Endo/Exo-Description of living Systems - a Mathematical Approach.

Robert North and Nazli Choucri Globalization: "Soft" Variables, "Hard"
Variables, and Behavioral Paradoxes

Toshizumi Ohta and Kazunari Ishida Toward a Development of an Encyclopedia of Social Informatics

Sara Ojeda Benítez A Conceptualization of Education for the New Millenium from the Systems Theory´s Perspective / Una Concepción de la Educación para el Nuevo Milenio desde la perspectiva de la Teoría de Sistemas

Eduardo Oliva-López, Jorge A. Rojas-Ramírez and Edith R. Silva-Mendoza Egocentric management: an Organisational Disease Preventing Good Communication and Wellbeing

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ABSTRACTS

A Critique of Social Systems Theory

Gary S. Metcalf
Interconnections, LLC
2979 Terrace Lane, Ashland, KY 41102, USA
gsmetcalf@ashland.com

This paper will examine the application of systems theory to social systems. It will argue that the description of organizations, for instance, as systems, is essentially metaphorical, and that effective work in changing social systems, or purposefully creating new ones, will require a better understanding of their fundamental principles.

The original application of systems thinking to organizations, known as the ‘hard systems’ approach, attempted to use methods of ‘hard science’ (e.g., physics) to work with social systems, but in so doing treated them as though the parts could be engineered, like those of a machine. This was not only unsuccessful, but actually counterproductive (Banathy, 1996).

Soft systems approaches recognize the inherent subjectivity of human systems, but seem to leave the definition of such systems at a cognitive or conceptual level. The system, ultimately, is only ‘the way people see it’, with no actuality of its own.

Critical systems approaches argue that even soft systems do not address issues of power, and that social systems should (1) recognize their own philosophical bases and biases, and (2) ideally be the result of fully-participative, consensual decision making by all those involved or affected.

Niklas Luhmann’s adaptation of Maturana and Varela’s theory of autopoiesis, defining communication as the essential element of social systems, seems to offer the most plausible definition yet, but is not without controversy. Whether social systems are actually self-(re)creating in the same way as biological systems, or whether this is somewhat metaphorical, apparently remains to be established.

While much of the public interest would seem to revolve around ‘large-scale’ systems issues (e.g., poverty, economics vs. ecology, international policies and conflicts, etc.), there is little distinction made in the systems literature between these issues and those of individual organizations or families. Much of the literature regarding systems is found in applications, such as family therapy or organizational change, but rarely is there any clear definition of what distinguishes a system from a group (other than ‘how you see it’.)

This paper proposes that there are a number of issues that need to be considered in the further development of a theory of social systems: .Social systems are created through interactions. While knowledge, belief, intention, etc. may heavily influence human behavior, it is actual performance that creates the social sphere of existence. Interactions/performances occur in ‘real time’ (in the present), and are never completely connected with plans, models or intentions. (This brings into question the notion that even fully participative or consensual processes will produce their intended outcomes.) Performance, as we typically know it, is very goal-oriented, within specific realms (artistic, athletic, economic, political, etc.) Purposeful creation of social systems would seem to require a level of awareness, concern, and understanding of interactions which has yet to evolve in most settings.

It is unclear (at least to this author) how directly the current state of social systems theory is related to its foundation in general systems theory, and therefore to at least the vestiges of hard scientific thinking. While science has provided an unquestionably valuable foundation for technology, other approaches to knowing might well provide a more coherent foundation for social systems. These include those found in Buddhism (Varela, 1991) and possibly feminist theories (Tarnas, 1991), as examples.
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Conditions Under Which Partnership Cultures May Emerge

Donna DeWitt McGarry
University of St. Thomas
Graduate School of Business
Home Address: 4526 Casco Ave. Edina, MN 55424
DDM 1228@aol.com

Have we limited the possibilities for effective collective efforts by focusing our attention on the individual? Is a partnership culture the product of an aggregate of highly motivated and effective individuals, or does it emerge as an entity in its own right at the systems level of organization: capable of processing and acting on information, undetermined by the characteristics of the individual components?

The natural world functions on many levels. Quantum physics steers our explanation of the subatomic level away from a reduction to elementary particles, to the relationships and interactions which structure and sustain them in a unified system. At the heart of systems is the concept of connection. Systems don’t describe individual things as much as they describe the interconnections among what we accept as separate objects and events.

A complex adaptive system is a whole whose characteristics do not come from the characteristics of the components but rather from their organization. These systems are patterns of organization. A system is organized by its interdependent relationships and mutually altering interactions. Each component forms in relation to the other components of the system maintaining a self-organized cohesion. This interdependence means a change in one component necessitates a related change in all the others.

Internal information is processed and inter-related adjustments are made within the system, but are systems capable of processing external information and acting on it as a whole? Do systems learn over and above the learning of its components? Does systems learning give the advantage to a partnership culture?

In this paper I will argue that the conditions under which a partnership culture may emerge are the conditions by which a systemic structure is able to form and self-organize ( a manifestation of internal information processing). I will also argue that a systems structure has an advantage over aggregates and collectives in the way it is capable of learning and utilizing that learning. A partnership culture is more than cooperating individuals. Partnership brings specialized contributions together for a common purpose. When partnership is built on a systems structure, it does not seek one best arrangement for cohesion and order, but changes emerge through systems learning to accommodate or transform its environment.
[993]


Perspectualism; A multi-perspectual glance

Tom Mandel

Bela Banathy proposed twenty years ago that an ideal metaphor for the systemic perspective is that of a lens. A camera lens, for example, can bring us close or take us far away. What systemics brings in as new is a multi-perspective that has properties not found in any one of the individual perspectives. We are proposing a new model of Bela's metaphor, a meta-perspectualism, in effect, "THE ZOOM LENS."

We adopt differing viewpoints not only because of a difference in our knowledge, but also because we have adopted a certain way of perceiving. And that "certain way of perceiving (structure)" predetermines our perceptions to a much greater degree than our knowledge of the details.


Our perspectual "lens" creates, in effect, our "world view" which determines, in turn what sort of knowledge we will pay attention to. In this paper, we will show that opinions are based on certain selected perceptions, and further that the diversity of these selected perceptions cannot be denied. Nevertheless, diversity is complemented by an uniformity, witness our traffic systems, just as subjective reality is to be complemented with an objective reality. With that in mind, we will illustrate ways to incorporate diversity into a single scheme, a perspectual zoom lens.
We show how an elementary numerical analysis of basic systems reveals an evolutionary scheme eventually requiring all the various perspectives of a "minimal system," in effect creating a view from which all views are necessarily valid (within the limitations and capabilities those views are structured around).
A review of several other "meta-perspectives" such as Wilber's Four Quadrants, Von Bertalanffy's Domains, Hal Linstone's TOP multi-perspectives and Z. Zhu's similar WuLiShiLiRenLi metamodel. All of these are compared to a Simplified Geometrical Table of systemic elements. We conclude that Systemics then, is a multi-perspective tool that may allow us to end-run the notion of right and wrong. We suggest that the implications of this perspectualistic view are profound.

Keywords: Systemics, Perspective, Multi-perspective, General System


Geometric Systems Design

Curt McNamara,
4010 Hayes St. NE
Mpls., MN 55421

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a systems design approach based on universal geometry. Systems design can be enhanced with a structural representation of system requirements and system models. Written and mathematical approaches show feedback and boundaries either in a paragraph or an equation. In contrast, this paper illustrates systems mapping onto simple three-dimensional geometric models (for example the tetrahedron and the octahedron). Using this methodology ensures structural integrity of the system representation or design. Loops and feedback are made explicit, and the models encourage describing all connections between parts of the system. The techniques described here are aligned with the thinking of Buckminster Fuller, who coined the phrase design science to describe an integrated approach to problem solving and design of the future. Geometric systems design is one technique from the field of design science. There is an expanded version of this paper on-line at :
http://www.tc.umn.edu/~ahler002/gsd2.htm
[99178]


The Systemic Complexity as Organizational Paradigm of Democratic
Living in Latin America
La Complejidad Sistémica como Paradigma Organizacional del
Convivir Democrático en América Latina

Pedro Makabe
Senior Lecturer
Postgraduate School of Medicine
Universidad Cayetano Heredia
Gral. Garzon 2340, Lima 11, Peru
postmast@apjp.org.pe

The systemic paradigm of the complexity has applications in diverse areas of human duties (science, education, economy, administration, politics). Precisely, such approach can be very useful to understand and try to change reality in Latin America, with its critical situation (violence, poverty, corruption, dependency, lag and uncertain future), but at the same time with singular important valuable elements, who, to be resignified and reworthed by the diverse contributions of the complexity vision (with authors like Maturana, Morin, Parker), can make possible to wake up a great potential of change that could support the weak democracies existing the Latin American nations. All these new multidisciplinary ideas constitute a paradigm of social organization which could allow to practice a democratic living ethics, essential to overcome with the underdevelopment and build an armonic and developed society

Key words: Systemic paradigm, underdevelopment, complexity, development, Latin America.
[99200]

Resumen:

El paradigma sistémico de la complejidad tienen aplicaciones en diversas áreas del quehacer humano (ciencia, educación, economía, administración, política). Precisamente, tal enfoque puede ser útil para comprender e intentar cambiar la realidad de América Latina, con su situación crítica (violencia, empobrecimiento, corrupción, dependencia, atraso y futurio incierto), pero a la vez con elementos singulares valisos, que al ser resignificados y revalorados por los diversos aportes de la visión de la complejidad (con autores como Maturana, Morin, Parker), puede hacer posible el despertar de un gran potencial de cambio que fortalezca la frágil democracia que existe en las naciones latinoamericanas. Todas estas nuevas ideas multidisciplinarias constituyen un paradigma de organización social que permitiría la práctica de una ética de convivencia democrática, indispensable para superar el subdesarrollo y construir una sociedad progresista y armónica.

Palabras Clave: Paradigma sistémico, subdesarrollo, complejidad, desarrollo, América Latina.


Mom? What's the General System?

The Simplest Complexity, Sonny.

Tom Mandel

International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS)

International Institute for Systemic Inquiry and Integration (IISII)

ThomMandel@aol.com

Ludwig von Bertalanffy proposed what has come to be called a "General System Theory" in his book of the same name. A system, he said, is "Elements in Standing Relationship." I propose that this definition -- GS=R(E,E,,), is the general system all of us are looking for.

LvB closes his book with a rather provacative statement: "Hence ultimate reality is a unity of opposites, any statement holds from a certain viewpoint only, has only relative validity, and must be supplemented by antithetic statements from opposite points of view." And wraps the entire book up a few words later with..."But has this antithesis metaphysical reality or is it but an expression of the linguistic habits and the mode of action of our nervous system?" (r)

Let us begin to answer his question.It is Minimal rather than Maximal we should look at to begin with.

In this paper I will show that, from a certain perspective, a general system can be derived for both natural and conceptual systems. A general (natural) system should not be, as Jantsch says, of any surprise since everything came from one source - the sun.

Conceptual systems, on the other hand, abstract out, pay attention to, only certain subjective characteristics out of a nearly infinite reality thereby boundarizing the vast diversity into the myriad cultures we see today . Is there any hope of finding a common theme among all these diverse conceptual systems? I will show how a general scheme can in fact be produced from the process of conceptualizing that is common to all those conceptual schemes (the simplest scheme) , and various forms of notation that go along with it.

I will show how this simplest (conceptual) scheme can be ontologically derived as a system and further offers certain advantages not found in more particularized and thus limited expressions. For example, the mathematics of Group Theory.
I will show how the first binary division and unification is a necessary,
I will Redefine philosophy and science such that they form a complementary in which only the general can be philosophical, and only the particular can be science, and, subsequently how a particular can never be the general, and the general is never a particular.
I will show how simplicity can become complex and how complex can become simplicity and thus both are complementary relationships
I will illustrate how the cell, through DNA, a pair of pairs connected by a pair of pairs, in a pair, creates a vast diverse complexity and simplicity, and with astonishing regularity.
I will show how systems have been evaluated on the basis of number only.

I will show how the simplest conceptual scheme forms the first four archetypal systems, or to turn it around, how the first four archtypal schemes form a system and mention a few of the myriad schemes which follow this archetypal scheme.
The early Greek Four Elements of Nature
Science's Four Forces of Nature. The Physicist's Unification model The Native American Medicine Wheel. The Four WInds. The Buckminster Fuller Tetraheadron.
The ChineseYin/Yang. The Christian Trinity. The multi-perspectual Four Domains
Ken WIlber's Four Quadrant Model of Intergral Consciousness. Fohat. ATOP.

All of these have something in common. Convienently, , physicist Gerard t'Hooft writes in his article Non-abelian Gauge Theories of the Four forces of Nature, Scientific American, June, 1980 "What may ultimately prove to be more important is that all the theories have been stated in the same general form. "

I will discuss claims made by Jonas Salk who said in 1984: "It appears that an interacting, dynamic, asymmetrical binary relationship is the fundamental module of order in the cosmos." P37
And that relatonship is the fundamantalexpression of all things.


All of this I will show with what von Bertalanffy calls a "system," with a slight adjustment to "Two elements in Standing relationship..."

Perhaps, the one most important single bit of information everyone carries around with him is the one, which, if it were labled, would be called "assumed world-view." One of those assumed world-views we are concerned with here is the one that states "There is no general system." I wish to dispute that world view, and emphatically state, on the contrary, of course there is a general system, and

"It's a SNAP, right Mom?"

Keywords: Relationship, Relations, Wholism, Wholistic, Holism, General Systems, General Theory,
[9959]


Obvious and Hidden in Systems: Things, their Interrelations, ... and
Going On Further. An Overcoming One 125-Yearlong Stereochemical
Duality Paradox and its Interdisciplinary Generalization

Valeri A.Nikanorov
A.N.Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds,
Russian Academy of Sciences,
28 Vavilova, V-334, GSP-1, Moscow 117813, Russia
vanik@ineos.ac.ru

Anyone examining those molecular systems which are capable to exist in two enantiomeric (like Right and Left human hands) forms, obligatory runs across a fact that there are both asymmetric and (rotationally)symmetric molecules bearing with such kind of the stereochemical duality. Louis Pasteur who was for the first time succeeded in having got kept enantiomeric molecular species (separately) in his hands -- explained the very phenomenon of any enantiomorphizm (without any knowledge on their actual molecular structures in those times!) by his intuitive "dissymmetry" concept - namely, by that a given system should have lacked some definite elements of symmetry.

This well appeared to be absolutely right, since at present, when about the structures of molecules are known (almost!) all -- those "loosen" symmetry elements in molecules capable to be enantiomorphous are strictly known to be mirror plane, center of inversion (P.Curie) as well as the S4-axis (G.E.McCasland, and S.Proscow).

However, at the next important step to the developing just scientific stereochemistry, J.H.van't Hoff (who simultaneously with J.A.Le Bel used to put forward the concept of tetrahedral carbon atom) divided all kinds of enatiomers into two classes -- case I (asymmetric molecules as a whole, bearing with asymmetric centers) and case II (rotationally symmetric molecules, those without asymmetric centers). In about 100 years this concept has leaded R.S.Cahn, C.K.Ingold, and V.Prelog to the conclusion that "asymmetry is a sufficient condition for the existence of optical enantiomers, but it is not the necessary and sufficient condition. As the necessary and sufficient condition for enantiomerizm" it was suggested to consider the word "chirality" (which was first introduced in 1883 by Lord Kelvin and then philosophically generalized by L.L.White in 1957-58ths) designating the property of enantiomers to be two non-identical forms, interrelated by a reflection. However, now it should be said that the term "chirality" is not more than a simple tautology of the very fact of enantiomorphizm sui generis!

In this paper radically another approach (called to be stereomorphological in its nature) is proposed to the understanding the origin of enantiomorphizm. If one to pass from the usual level of the
obviously visible shapes of objects on the level of their "invisible" fine internal arrangements, we can see well Asymmetry and only Asymmetry of the internal system of binary interrelations in the object is the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of optical enantiomers! A novel proposition on the (hidden) "asymmetric blocks" is suggested, along with the new methodology of "configurational analysis" which is elaborated and used to understanding mechanisms of narcissistic transformations of chiral molecules. A broad interdisciplinary generalization of the principle is performed, that oriented to the theories of emergence, evolution, and development; theory of shape, and complexity, as well as to searching new ways to the solution of some metasystemic paradoxes ("antinomy-problem"), and clearing up the nature of some systemless (extra- or quazi-systemic) archaic-paralogical delusions (of the type of so called "dialectic contrarieties").
[9923]



Complementarity Of The Goal-Based, The Systems Resource And
Multiactor Evaluation Methodologies

Clemencia Morales
Centre for Systems and Information Sciences.
University of Lincolnshire and Humberside

Transversal 18 # 126A-31. Interior 3. Apto. 11-03
Bogotá. Colombia

This paper is about the complementarity of evaluation methodologies. According to the work on evaluation carried out by Gregory and Jackson (1991), there are different forms of evaluation: Goal-Based, Systems-Resource and Multi-Actor. Theoretically, Goal-Based Evaluation is based upon the organisation reaching formal goals. The Systems Resource Evaluation Methodology is based upon the idea that it is impossible to act without causing multiple reactions throughout the organisation. It is important to analyse the organisation as a coherent system with structure and processes. The Multi-Actor Evaluation is based on the principle that organisational success is based on satisfied stakeholders. It is a pluralistic approach that takes into consideration the different points of view of all organisational actors and stakeholders and their relationship.

The important issue is to use these approaches in a complementarity way order to allow each methodology to contribute to the analysis of the organisation. I advance the argument for an Evaluation System consisting of three parts: the complementarity of evaluation methodologies, the methodology user, and the organisation under study.

In relation to the complementarity of evaluation methodologies, this examines how the evaluation methodologies come to be integrated through the Interactive Evaluation Management Process. It is a dynamic management system for formulating, measuring and implementing strategies.

In relation to the methodology user, this demonstrates how I have tested the evaluation methodologies in courses, seminars and consultancies with Colombian organisations and the framework used to conduct the evaluation.

As for the organisation under study, this is to relate to the Colombian context. The methodology was tested for use in a project with Carbocol (The Colombian National Coal Company).

The paper will conclude with a learning process on practice as a permanent feedback from the whole system that helps to define organisational strategies.

"Keywords": Evaluation; Systems; Indicators; Organizational Analysis; Performance Measurement; Effectiveness
[9926]


Complexity and the Evolution of Planetary Culture

Alfonso Montuori
School of Consciousness and Transformation
California Institute of Integral Studies
1453 Mission St.
San Francisco, CA 94103, USA
isdmonty@tmn.com

This paper explores the notion of an emerging Planetary Culture from two perspectives. The first addresses the nature of this phenomenon and the potential evolutionary trajectories of planetary culture, briefly covering some of the main interpretations as presented in the work of Fukuyama, Huntington, Barber, Eisler, Laszlo, and Morin. The second part addresses the call for the development of a new way of thinking about this very phenomenon, one that has emerged in its most articulate form with thinkers informed by systems theoretical perspectives. A central argument of this emerging position is that the very way we think about issues of planetary culture is itself part of the problem, not the solution. Confronted with such issues as the clash of cultures, the end of history, the twin perils of homogenization and fragmentation, the imperiled notions of self and community, and the lack of a satisfying concept of "progress," we find that the way in which these problems are formulated and thought through perpetuates the problems. A systemic alternative is presented as the necessary prolegomena to begin exploring these crucial issues in a more constructive manner.
[9982]



Knowledge for Beings Able to Design
Conocimiento Para Seres Capaces de Diseñar

Gianfranco Minati

Interuniversity Center for Research on Cognitive Processing
in Natural and Artificial Systems
Department of Psychology, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via dei Marsi 78, 00185 Roma, Italy
pessa@axcasp.caspur.it

In this paper the ability to design as one aspect of the uniqueness of the human being and knowledge as typical and more important resource for this activity are discussed. The possibility to consider the “genetic project” for the human being as divided in two parts, one fixed and predefined as for all other species and another variable to be designed, is discussed (contrast between genotype and phenotype). In this context the concept of "kind of knowledge" is introduced and three of them (deterministic, non-deterministic and systemic knowledge) are outlined with reference to evolution of social systems (pre-industrial, industrial, post-industrial, and post-business Society phases) suggesting the systemic one is the more appropriate for the task of designing both post-business societies and sustainable social systems. The topics focused in this paper make reference to the more general problem of the production of knowledge.

Key Words: Design, human being, kind of knowledge, genetic project, systemic knowledge, social systems, production of knowledge
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Resumen:

En este artículo se discuten tanto la habilidad para diseñar, como una capacidad del ser humano en tanto ser único, y el conocimiento como el recurso más importante y típico para llevar a cabo esta actividad. La posibilidad de considerar el ¨proyecto genético¨ para el ser humano, como dividido en dos partes, una fija y pre definida tal como para todas las especies y otra, variable, a ser diseñada, se discute aquí (constraste entre el genotipo y el fenotipo). En este contexto, el concepto de ¨tipo de conocimiento¨ es introducido y tres de ellos (determinístico, no determinístico y sistémico) son descritos con referencia a la evolución de los sistemas sociales (fases de la Sociedad pre-industrial, industrial, post-industrial y post-empresarial) sugiriendo que el sistémico es el más apropiado para la tarea de diseñar ambas: sociedades: post-empresariales y sistemas sociales sostenibles. Los tópicos enfocados en este artículo hacen referencia al problema más general de producción de conocimiento.

Palabras Clave: Diseño, ser humano, tipo de conocimiento, proyecto genético, conocimiento sistémico, sistemas sociales, producción de conocimiento


A Conceptualization of Education for the New Millenium from the Systems Theory´s Perspective / Una Concepción de la Educación para el Nuevo Milenio desde la perspectiva de la Teoría de Sistemas

Sara Ojeda Benítez
Senior Lecturer
Graduate Program in Systems Engineering
Universidad Autónoma de Baja California,
Blvd. Benito Juárez y Calle de la Normal s/n,
Mexicali, B.C., C.P. 921280, México.
sojeda@csiam1.mxl.uabc.mx

Education in general is depository of the social commission to preserve and re-create people´s culture, however, the measure throught which it is possible to achieve these proposals depends on the kind of society to which it belongs.

Since the origin of civilizations, cultures have experienced constant interactions in virtue of wars, alliances, conquets, colonizations, emancipatory fights, commercial interchange, etc. The cultual mosaic we have nowadays, is the outcome of those interactions occurried a long the Human history.

Currently, the historic process which we are now living, condense as never before in history, vertiginous changes in all areas, this means that education should have to play a central role, due to the fact that it will have to show the proposals and tendencies that since a new and creative vision, allow us to outlook the knowledge revolution and the reality, which we are now living and will live in the next century.

The structural changes generated in national economies have repercussions that, in the new millenium, will induce changes over society, which will have to replay to the new conditions. Then education has an important role in the current context, because it must form the Human being of the future, who will live the new social and economic conditons.

Under this perspective, in this paper, education is approached as a system, with the aim to apply its worldview to educational matters. This is like that, due to the fact that under this kind of prism we will overcome the reductionism imposed on how, traditionaly, has been treated this process, which has been linked, mainly, to the transmission of knowledge, converting it in an informative process, neglecting the formative aspect which is of great relevance in the context seen for the new millenium. It is important to clarify, as well, that the education´s conceptualization presented in this paper is focused mainly to the higher educational systems.

Key Words: Education, systems approach, change, higher education, culture, informative process, formative process.
[99219]

Resumen:

La educación general, es la depositaria del encargo social de preservar y recrear la cultura de los pueblos, sin embargo, la medida en que puede cumplir con esos elevados propósitos, depende del tipo de sociedad de que se trate.

Desde el origen mismo de las civilizaciones, las culturas de los pueblos han experimentado constantemente interacciones en virtud de las guerras, las alianzas, las conquistas, las colonizaciones, las luchas de emancipación, el intercambio comercial, etc. El mosaico de culturas que hoy contemplamos, es el resultado de sus interacciones ocurridas a lo largo de la historia humana.

Actualmente el proceso histórico que nos toca vivir condensa como en ninguna otra época de la historia, cambios vertiginosos en todas las áreas, esto significa que la educación deberá jugar un papel central, pues le tocará dar a conocer las propuestas y tendencias que desde una nueva y creativa visión, nos permitan vislumbrar la revolución en el conocimiento y la realidad que vivimos y viviremos en el próximo siglo.

Los cambios estructurales que se han generado en las economías nacionales tiene repercusiones que, en el nuevo milenio, inducirán cambios sobre la sociedad, la cual tendra que responder a las nuevas condiciones. Entonces la educación tiene una función importante en el contexto actual, pues debe formar al hombre del futuro, el que va a vivir las nuevas condiciones sociales y económicas.

Bajo esta perspectiva en este artículo se aborda la educa-ción como sistema para aplicar su enfoque, al quehacer educativo. Ya que bajo este prisma se superará el reduccionis-mo impuesto al tratamiento que, tradicio-nalmente, se ha hecho de éste proceso, el cual ha sido vinculado a transmisión de conocimientos, convirtiendolo en un proceso informativo, dejando de lado el aspecto formativo que es de gran relevancia en el contexto que se vislumbra para el nuevo milenio. Es importante aclarar que la conceptualización de educación que se presenta en este trabajo está enfocada esencialmente a los sistemas de educación superior.
Palabras Clave: Educación, enfoque de sistems, cambio, educación superior, cultura, proceso informativo, proceso formativo.


Resolution of Conflict in Northern Ireland - A Systemic Analysis


Michael McKibbin and Lawrie Reavill

Management Systems and Information Department,
City University Business School, Walmsley House,
City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK.

The conflict between Catholics and Protestants has been extant for many decades in northern Ireland. More recently, in the last decade, this has exploded into violence, with para-military groups supporting both sides involved in incidents causing death, personal injury and damage to property. The political initiatives have been many and frequent, but until very recently progress towards a peaceful solution of the conflict has been slow and sporadic. Reversals have occurred with new outbreaks of violence and counter-violence.

However, in the immediate past year, progress towards a peaceful solution has been better. This paper gives an outline of a systemic study to identify, explain and predict some of the influences underlying the Northern Ireland peace process. The system of interest is evaluated together with its environment. It is shown that the environment has influenced the system of interest so significantly that the latter has been fundamentally and permanently altered. A political theory is proposed to explain the changes which have brought about the current situation, and which can be used to predict the likely outcome. The systemic analysis and the political theory indicate that a positive outcome to the peace process is now much more likely.
[9963]

 


Globalization: "Soft" Variables, "Hard"
Variables, and Behavioral Paradoxes

Robert North and Nazli Choucri
Professor Emeritus, Dept of Political Science
Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305
rcnorth@crl.com

Increasingly, in recent years, and especially with growing concern over the complexities and paradoxes of globalization, destructive impacts, and the development of massively destructive weaponry, the interactive dynamics of "soft" and "hard" variables have become a pressing
issue among scholars in political science and other disciplines. Consequently, we have been developing a quantitatively constructed "global" system pertaining to to the evolution of homo sapiens from bands, tribes, and chiefdoms into states, empires and emergent processes and structures of the Third Millenium A.D.

Processes and structures are reduced to three "master variables:" "population, technology and (natural) resources from which, interactively, all intervening and 'dependent" variables derive.
Quantitatively, from the end of World War II, the "system" emerges annually in terms of economic, political, and social processes and structures and including wars (measured by military expenditures, men under arms, casualties, and durations of hostilities); migrations; and environmental impacts (together with feedbacks)---collected annually and transformed into percentages of global totals.

The fundamental and countable population unit, obviously, is the individual human being, Technology (knowledge and skills) is indicated but GNP (not as satisfactory as we would like; tools may provide another indicator). For resources, the primary indicator is territory together with flora, fauna, ozone, etc., the planet itself and, increasingly, space.

In the course of this undertaking, we have been criticized, quite properly, for ignoring or by-passing such "soft" variables as beliefs, perceptions, expectations, intentions, decisions, etc. During the past
decade, however, a number of studies have become available which enable us to include these and possibly a few other "soft" variable indicators together, we think, with "measurable" linkages and boundaries between "soft" and "hard" indicators.

Highly relevant to linkages are applications of endosomatic and exosomatic distinctions by economists, drawing from biology (notably Alfred J. Lotka) which provide linkages of a kind and boundaries between "soft" and "hard" variables.

The outcome may or may not be adequate, but we think it will be a useful start. Many if not most of the "soft" brain\mind endosomaytic variables (perceptions, beliefs, intentions, decisions, etc.) give rise to measurable consequences (economic, political, conflictual, often paradoxical outcomes, impacts, rewards, disasters). Some of the output may be inferential rather than "Hard causal", but the best way to find out, we assume, is to identify interactive relationships and measure them in terms of their outcomes.

We would expect to identify many interchanges to amount to paradoxes. Assume that we identify three rough categories of nations interacting in the global environment: those possessing weapons of mass destruction; those that do not but are reasonably satisfied economically, etc.; and those which possess neither massively destructive weaponry nor economic/political satisfaction. The test-prediction would be that the more Group III countries are subjected to efforts by Group I countries to deny them access to weapons of mass destruction the more likely will be the probability that both will be locked into a damned if you do and a damned if you do not relational paradox.
[99136]


Communications and Living Systems

Danielle Mihram and G. Arthur Mihram,
Director, Center for Excellence in Teaching
Leavey, 301B
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182
dmihram @usc.edu

We extend our earlier results in two areas of the systems literature: the role of communications in living systems, particularly as is reflected in our Age of Tele-communications; and, the nature of the Scientific Method [INT'l J GENERAL SYSTEMS 1: 41-60 and 281, 1974(1971).

The unification of the sciences, via significant improvement in the communication of scientific results, becomes then a major theme of the paper. In addition, we seek to illustrate how the learning process, not only of us human organisms but also that of the 'higher species of animal
organisms, is virtually isomorphic to the historical process by which Science has (i.e., we collectively have), over decades and centuries, reflected our increased learning about nature.

We of course emphasise, among Miller's subsystems of any living system: the decider. The first result is an underscoring of the distinction between life and living. We then use the historical record to show that failures to ensure the communication of scientific results is biologically quite hazardous, particularly at the levels of societies and supernational systems.

[99187]


Behavioral Complexity and Cultural Evolution
from an Empirical Base

Michael McElwee,
Emergent Dynamics
7 Darnby Court
Orinda, CA 94563-4207

This paper asserts: 1) that behavioral complexity is the consequence of the simultaneous execution of small sets of simple rules, 2) that these rule sets are part of the initial conditions prevailing at the founding of the organization, thereby becoming one source of systemic sensitivity, 3) that organizational culture is both the container for rule sets and the medium whereby system sensitivity is evoked, 4) that organizational complexity arises opportunistically and must be congruent though not necessarily completely consistent with the rules and conditions in the preceding items, and 5) that organizations evolve in ways befitting their definition as complex, adaptive, dynamical systems.

In partial support of the above, the design and conduct of a workshop used as a test bed for direct observation of the behavior of its participants and for the study of the origin(s) and evolution of cultures in organizational settings is described. Results from several iterations of the workshop, though varied in their particulars, as well as additional sources, are cited. Consistent support for the above assertions is described. Similarly, the emergence of proto-cultures has been observed, and this process is outlined.
[998]


Egocentric Management: an Organisational Disease
Preventing Good Communication and Wellbeing

Eduardo Oliva-López, Jorge A. Rojas-Ramírez and Edith R. Silva-Mendoza
IPN, México
eoliva@vmredipn.ipn.mx

An ongoing research work on the causality of common industrial problems has shown that most of such problems are deeply rooted on egocentric managerial practices. This is so, because most managers are not able to make congruent their own objectives with those of the company they work for, thus promoting inter-personal conflicts and hampering the firm’s competitiveness.

This paper aims to show some ways in which egocentric management is preventing good communication and wellbeing of personnel in a sample of companies. So far, all the companies surveyed are affected by this organisational disease and it is surprising to ascertain how little awareness there is about it. The inescapable question is: How is it that so many managers are not aware or neglect this situation? What chain of events has brought us here? Who and how benefits from it? How can we change for the better? Where do we begin? Indeed, there do not seem to be quick and simple answers to these questions, moreover, one hopes that something can be done before the affected companies collapse.

This disease appears to be a major barrier for teamwork (essential for total quality management), since it prevents the development of synergy, solidarity, and interdisciplinary work.

This analysis is based on a list of related manager features portraying the egocentric profile. The evaluation of a given manager is carried out by ascertaining the incidence of each feature; the impact of each feature is expressed by means of a semi-quantitative factor that indicates its severity.

The analysis of the various elements of a company’s system, as they relate to the problems examined, is carried out by means of a “star diagram” developed in a former research work.

The results obtained so far show that, because of the widespread lack of congruence between the managers and their companies’ objectives, the analysis of problems and their causes must compulsorily look into the egocentric features of managers.
[9985]


Toward a Development of an Encyclopedia of Social Informatics

Toshizumi Ohta and Kazunari Ishida
Graduate Department of Information Management Science
Graduate School of Information Systems
University of Electro-Communications
1-5-1 Choufugaoka, Choufushi
Tokyo 182-8585, JAPAN
ohta@is.uec.ac.jp

This presentation concerns with an encyclopedia for social informatics as a resource in a cyber commons. The progress in information technology makes it possible to realize social computing. The social computing includes information transmission as well as reception in an individual level. The phenomena bring about two major problems. Firstly, we have to prepare an effective information processing system to edit various information effectively for our decision makings. Secondly, a social system may shift to a heterarchical system from a hierarchical system. Interactions among us reveal a different complex aspect of the society. An autogenetic aspect of the society will be enhanced due to the new type of information systems. An effective system must be technologically feasible, economically feasible, and operationally viable. We will discuss the requirements with respect to the system that supports the encyclopedia of social informatics. An encyclopedia of social informatics can be an effective repository of information and knowledge. We will develop a new method for editing discussion among various disciplines, in that disciplines related with information are to be integrated for the repository. Certain sort of visualization system will be helpful for the integration. In order to develop and maintain the contents of the ncyclopedia, we will design a new system of participation.
[9983]



Endo/Exo-Description of living Systems - a Mathematical Approach

Roumiana Nikolaeva-Hubenova
Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

The holistic approach to description of living systems is based on the concept that the living organism is itself a part, participant and contributor to its world of observation.

The cognitive process of living systems goes through actions of perception and consciousness. Perception is the means of connection with and investigation of the environmental reality. It supplies the process of consciousness with material for creating a space of consciousness.

The space of consciousness is the space of the subjective experience of the living system. Since this is the space in which the world and the system appear to the system on an experimental level, it can be called '' a representational space''. The vehicle of representation, bearing subjective content, can be called ''mental models''. The conscious space of the system consists of mental models, which are often embedded in each other. The largest of the mental models active in this space is the conscious ''model of reality'' or ''model of the world''. This phenomenal model of the world contains all the other conscious mental models and its content is identical with the overall content of the conscious space of the system. ( T.Metzinger).

We can assume, that the space of consciousness is an exo-system.

Every process of cognition, passing through a process of measurement, reduces the system to one with initial and final states, i.e. to an exo-system. This opens the main problem of the theory of living systems: self generated system/environment boundaries. The observer-defined boundary between the system and environment is always different from the system-defined boundary between itself and all other systems created through its operational closer. In fact we come to the incompatibility of two view-points:

1. the exo-description of the system and its environment by an external observer where the system is defined by an external observer and

2. the endo-description of the living system itself where the observer is included, i.e. where the boundary of the system and its environment is created by the system.

What we really need is a mathematical model which allows a simultaneous formal representation of exo- and endo-description of living systems.

One of those things that look very different in exo- and endo-description is time. Time appears to be the most important concept that underlies the theory of brain function. Whether time is part of reality itself or whether it is just one of our ways of perceiving reality by an imposed construct is a question readily addressable with the endo/exo-description.( Kampis).

From an exo-viewpoint time becomes contextual. Externally, it is possible to define differences in time, and it is meaningful to speak about the speed of time, too. It all depends on the relative positions of target system and observer. To relate the external time of the observer to the internal time of the observed, time scales have to be introduced. Not only the units, but, as a consequence of there difference, the notions of past, present, and future may differ. Exo-time is decoupled or detached from that of the target system: the passing of the time in the observed system is no longer inexorable for its external observer. He has another time. ( Kampis)

Classical physics has been developed on the basis of exo-viewpoint of time. From the internal viewpoint, time is an inexorably primary percept. It cannot be cancelled or altered.

Time propels the observer, together with the observed away from the ''now'' to the ''future''. For an observer situated internally, time has neither velocity nor direction. Whatever direction or speed is assumed by the time variable, the same holds for the internal observer, and so there is no difference or displacement to notice. Internal time sets its own tempo and rhythm, with no observable consequences. (Kampis)

We now can say, that every exophysical description is time-global, because in such a description both the past and future are reachable, which is possible in the state of detachment. From an exo-position the brain perceives the object as a whole. On the other side the endophysicsal description is time-local. For such a description only an eternal present would be reachable ( and maybe the past could be remembered in addition). Endo-description exactly characterizes the sensory information available to an endo-observer who swims together with the flow of time.

The only direct tool, available to the internal observer is the observation itself. For him the process of cognition is characterized by his empirical state, updated automatically in the course time. As a consequence, endo-states must have the same indextual nature as endo-time. They are labeled by temporal intervals, in which the observer is conscious about the kind of sensory information he has received. Only such information can have a physical meaning for him and can be used for constructing mental models of reality.

In the theory of brain function we could assume, that the cognitive process of constructing conscious models from sensory information is an exophysical expression of an originally endophysical process.

We now claim, that every dynamical model of the function of brain must be constructed on the basis of discrete-time dynamical principles, which are consistent with continuous-time dynamics\cite{Jar}. Such a mathematical approach could bridge the gulf between endo/exo description of living systems. In this mathematical approach the temporal evolution parameter is replaced by discrete time parameter. Space and dynamical degrees of freedom are not discretized. A system function is introduced as a central concept. With the system function we can calculate equations of motions, quantize the system and construct invariants of motion which have there analogous in continuous time mechanics.
[99124]


A Cognitive Expertize Throughout Modern Disciplinary
Chemistries: A True Invaluable Verificational Treasure for the
Developing Duality Theory

Valeri A.Nikanorov

A.N.Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds,
Russian Academy of Sciences,
28 Vavilova, V-334, GSP-1, 117813 Moscow, Russia
vanik@ineos.ac.ru

Chemistry (Metachemistry?), a powerful metasystem, is being put forward in this paper as a great (and close to ideal!) area of conducting a virtual "Experimentation" for the General Systems science (GSS) and the developing Duality theory (DT). Some "concrete" paradigmal (as always, too disciplined, topical, or thematic) knowledge is then needed to be left outside. However, it is of general practicality to GSS and DT to extract (and then reconstruct) the very Essential from any given -- both natural and human -- scientific discipline!

A very distinctive "systemic" (and hence closely related to the obvious or intuitive dualities) spirit is highly inherent in those lines of the whole Chemistry which have been operating with very well defined and very deeply scritinized "molecular" objects and categories (both static and dynamic; of micro-, meso- and macroscopic levels). With their very branched system of differentiated, distinguished and very advanced (some tens of) "isomery" categories, the peculiar features of Chemistry are the finely oriented systemic taxonomies (systematics, classifications,
nomenclatures) and isomorphies/evolutionising hierarchies) in both linear and non-linear (open and close) chemical systems (including "bistable" molecular devices) with their fine molecular organizations, self-organizations, and architectures.

In terms of the GSS and DT approaches a cognitive analysis of some newest methodologies throughout the main lines of modern Chemistry is carried out (1980-1999 are considering). Some very specific to Chemistry kinds and examples of Duality (e.g., "parity", "evenness"/"oddness", various kinds of "ambivalencies" ("ambifunctionalities", "ambidencies"), the notions of "specificity" and "selectivity" (with some crucial limitations from the side of "activity"!) as well as "reversibility"(direct-retro processes)/"irreversibility" are collected and examinated. The problems of formal structure of the knowledge, and of systemic (logico-semantic) analysis of some important "chemical" -- both of Object and Concept -- categories are stated, in searching ways to the adequate encoding, parametrizating and quantificating, wherever possible, their the very essential immanent composite characteristics. There are particularly emphasized the juxtaposition and biases of such broad "interpretational" dichotomies (used under the analysis of chemical "inventions" and "discoveries") as "normality"/"abnormality"/"anomality" of allowed"/"forbidden", "predictable"/unpredictable", "convenient"/"non-convenient", "recognizable"/"unrecognizable", "anticipated"/"unanticipated" (to say not of "trivial" and "surprising"!) categories -- all those oftenly used under the evaluating importance or significance of the results of both scientific Narration and Discourse in Chemistry.

In general, the unique epistemological resources of the GSS and DT allow one to elicit -- and thereby to begin work on their "synthetic" reconstruction in Systemic Duality terms -- something like a fine structure of the genuine chemists' "Collective Unconscious" (by C.Jung) from the entire "Art of Chemistry" (Sir R.Robinson), i.e., that what is specifically patterned due to the possible existence of some special "chemistry-oriented" mental archetypes. The nature of some specifically inherent-in-Chemistry kinds of mental activity (and "creative" productivity) are discussed in the general context of the modern GSS/DT, in taking particular attention to the elaboration of systemic approaches to searching ways to the objective (systemic) evaluating some very important (though, being rather fuzzy, so far) "non-metrical" categories of chemical "heuristics", as well as some principal difficulties, limitations, and new emergent problematic multidisciplinary tasks along the ways to creating the chemistry-oriented artificial intelligence.
[9922]


Living Model for Enterprise Information Systems

Doug McDavid
Senior Consultant
IBM Global Services

The dominant paradigm for information systems today is an engineering perspective, which draws on lessons from the fields of architecture and other large, complex structural projects. This kind of thinking has penetrated deeper into business via the notion of "business process reengineering", as if social organizations themselves are the subject of some kind of engineering discipline.

This paper builds on another school of thought that holds that organizations are learning systems. It is based on the author's experience with building and maintaining information systems that were
under constant evolutionary pressure from the people in the organization to extend and refine the kinds of information that the systems could accommodate. This leads to the perspective that information systems for enterprises are not artifacts that can be designed and built once, but are the vehicles or constraints to living knowledge representation for some goal-directed group of human beings.

This paper explores the problem of enterprise-wide information systems in terms of cognitive and living systems characteristics of business organizations. The author draws on Miller's living systems model, the viable systems model, and cognitive models of the brain to create a conceptual architecture of enterprise information systems. The paper also draws on the biological concept of symbiogenesis to bolster an evolutionary perspective of how organizations are subject to forces that
introduce variety, and select for successful innovations. Along the way the paper will raise the question of whether social autopoiesis is a metaphor or a reality. It compares and contrasts aspects of social and biological systems to help refine the model of living enterprise information systems.
[9980]


Egocentric Management: an Organisational Disease
Preventing Good Communication and Wellbeing

Eduardo Oliva-López, Jorge A. Rojas-Ramírez and Edith R. Silva-Mendoza
IPN, México
eoliva@vmredipn.ipn.mx

An ongoing research work on the causality of common industrial problems has shown that most of such problems are deeply rooted on egocentric managerial practices. This is so, because most managers are not able to make congruent their own objectives with those of the company they work for, thus promoting inter-personal conflicts and hampering the firm’s competitiveness.

This paper aims to show some ways in which egocentric management is preventing good communication and wellbeing of personnel in a sample of companies. So far, all the companies surveyed are affected by this organisational disease and it is surprising to ascertain how little awareness there is about it. The inescapable question is: How is it that so many managers are not aware or neglect this situation? What chain of events has brought us here? Who and how benefits from it? How can we change for the better? Where do we begin? Indeed, there do not seem to be quick and simple answers to these questions, moreover, one hopes that something can be done before the affected companies collapse.

This disease appears to be a major barrier for teamwork (essential for total quality management), since it prevents the development of synergy, solidarity, and interdisciplinary work.

This analysis is based on a list of related manager features portraying the egocentric profile. The evaluation of a given manager is carried out by ascertaining the incidence of each feature; the impact of each feature is expressed by means of a semi-quantitative factor that indicates its severity.

The analysis of the various elements of a company’s system, as they relate to the problems examined, is carried out by means of a “star diagram” developed in a former research work.

The results obtained so far show that, because of the widespread lack of congruence between the managers and their companies’ objectives, the analysis of problems and their causes must compulsorily look into the egocentric features of managers.
[9985]

 

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