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Section P to S

Elaine R Parent A Model for Doctoral Student Academic and Career Development and a Proposed 'Jump Start' Program for Entering Doctoral Students

Hyo-chong ParkSome Reform Suggestions for the Korean Bureaucracy: A Systems Perspective

Jiwoon Park The Design of Learning Process for Ethical Cognition

Francisco Parra-LunaTowards Measuring Organizational Performance
Hacia la Medida de la Eficiencia de las Organizaciones

Elizabeth Pavka The Paradigm Shift from Dietetics to Nutrition in the
United States Health Care system and a Look Into the Future

Lawrie Reavill and Chris Brady "Teamness" - Is Synergy in Teams a Reality or an Illusion?

Lawrie Reavill A Systemic Analysis of Research Assessment in UK Universities

Edward J. Reese , Maryann Reese, and Miriam R. TausnerS ystems Models Provide a View of Psychological Self-Organization

John Reiss, Child Health Systems Development:
A General Systems Theory Based Approach

Yong Pil Rhee New Paradigm of Self-Organization for the Study of Social Systems

Byung Chul Rho Complexity of System Transformation in North Korea

Peter J. Richerson and Robert Boyd Complex Societies: The Evolutionary Origins of a Crude

Peter P. Robertson The AEM-Cube®.

Rafael Rodríguez Delgado Application of the Systems Approach to the Design of Educational Systems
Aplicacion del Enfoque de Sistemas al Diseño de Sistemas Educacionales

Guillermo Rodriguez Abitia and L. L. Schkade Control of Technology Trasfer: a Global Metamodel

Ricardo Rodríguez-Ulloa Soft System Dynamics Methodology (SSDM): a Tool for
Social Systems Analysis and Design
Methodologia Blanda de Dinamica de Sistemas (MBDS):
una Herramienta Para el Analisis y Diseño de Sistemas Sociales

I. Rojdestvenski Time rescaling and generalized entropy in relation to the internal
measurement concept

I Rojdestvenski and M.Cottam Mapping of Statistical Physics to Information theory:

Igor Rojdestvenski and Abir Igamberdiev Recursive Embedding, Quantum Measurement
and Uncertainty Principle

James N Rose Integrity, Entropy, Emergy, Gaussian Bubbles

James N Rose Old Perceptions, New Thinking

Sander Rubin The Shape of the Curve

Hector Sabelli and Louis Kauffman BIOS: Creative Organization Beyond Chaos

Hector Sabelli Complement plots display Mandala-like patterns in human heart beats

Hector Sabelli Information Begets Color

Rolando Salazar Vargas Cultural Lag Theory in the Context of Change in Social Systems Teoría del Retraso Cultural en el Contexto de Cambio en Sistemas Sociales

Savely Savva Dialectics of Social Dynamics

Savely Savva Toward a Cybernetic Model of the Organism

Markus Schwaninger, Stephen G. Powell, Chris Trimble Modeling a Control System for Organizational Processes

Elaine Scott & Lawrence P. Reavill Change Management in an Arts Organisation: The Dominance of Unintended Over Intended Outcome.

Z.K. Silagadze Citations and the Zipf-Mandelbrot's law

Youn-Soo Sim On the Subsystems Processing the Energy and Information in the Current Relations between South and North Korea

James R. Simms Principles of a Quantitative Living Systems Science: Individuals

James R. Simms Group Information: Its Nature and Measurement

Jeffrey S. Sinn Faith without the Supernatural: Faith as a Response to the Existential Implications of Systems Theory

Carl Slawski A Systemic Pragmatist Theory of the Meaning of Life

Arnold SmithInformation Technology and the Scientific Worldview

Ricardo Sotaquirá Gutiérrez Towards a Latin American View of the Application of System
Dynamics in Organizational Studies
Hacia un Mirar Latinoamericano de la Aplicación de la Dinámica
De Sistemas en Estudios Organizacionales

Sherryl R. Stalinski The Ways and Means of Heathy, Authentic Community

Rudolf Starkermann Con Mala Persona, el Remedio: Mucho Tierra en Media
(The only path to temporary peace!)

S. Strijbos Principles of "Disclosive Systems Thinking" Philosophical and Methodological Refelctions

Arthur Sugerman, Hector Sabelli and Minu Patel Biotic Patterns of Economic Processes:
Beyond Equilibrium, Chaos, and Uncertainty

Adam D. Sundel, Martin Sundel The Y2KmPhenomenon and its ImplicationsUsing multidisciplinary education to cross organizational borders - a Finnish example

G. A. Swanson Money, the Third Commodity

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Group Information: Its Nature and Measurement

James R. Simms
Simms Industries, Inc.
Fulton, Maryland

Group information is transmitted from one individual causing behavior in one or more individuals of the group. Group information cannot be directly observed. It is observed by the work it causes a receiving individual to perform. Genetic group information causes the work necessary for a receiving individual to synthesize genetic and protein materials. Biochemical group information causes the work necessary for biochemical reactions in receiving individuals. Neural group information causes the work necessary for neural behaviors and the contraction of muscles in receiving individuals. The nature of group information is (1) it cannot be directly observed, (2) it is observed by the work it causes in a receiving individual of the group, (3) it can be measured by the work it causes, and (4) it is ephemeral. Units of measure can be established for genetic, biochemical, and neural group information.

"Teamness" - Is Synergy in Teams a Reality or an Illusion?

Lawrie Reavill and Chris Brady

Management Systems and Information Department,
City University Business School, Walmsley House,
City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK.

The authors, both individually and jointly, have published recent papers on the application of systems thinking and metaphor to the performance of teams in organisations: Reavill, on the role of individuals in high technology project teams, and on a systemic analysis of the differences between teams and work-groups; Brady, on the behaviour of elite decision makers in governmental situations, and on the performance of a team of Government Ministers dealing with an international crisis. Jointly, papers have been published on the use of sports metaphors, and on the relevance of performing arts metaphors; and this year on the differentiation between strategic and tactical teams.

The outcome of this work is the hypothesis that a work-team has "synergy", whereas a work-group does not. There is support for this view in comments by Charles Handy, in the work on "teamness" by Hilarie Owen, and Stafford Beer's theories of "team syntegrity". Dictionary definitions of synergy generally contain words such as "co-operation" and "combined action", but in the management context, it is often taken to mean a situation in which "the whole is more than the sum of the parts", (or even 2 + 2 = 5), a view which will find favour with systems scientists, if not with mathematicians.

The paper continues the study of teams, (managerial, political, sports, or artistic) in search of proof that a "team" can generate something extra to the combined best efforts of the individuals. The tentative conclusion is that genuine synergy in human team-work is not easy to demonstrate, occurs rarely, and when it does occur, it is under very special conditions. The most we can usually expect is that a well co-ordinated team will produce results equal to the combined best efforts of the team members.

Principles of "Disclosive Systems Thinking" Philosophical and Methodological Refelctions

S. Strijbos
Faculty of Philosophy, Vrije Universiteit
De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amterdam
The Netherlands

"Disclosive systems thinking" has been launched as a research project in the area of systems methodology. While systems methodology is practice-oriented and concerns human culturally formative activity, the notion of "disclosure" expresses a specific view of this activity, namely as grounded in given potentialities and leading to the unfolding of human life and culture. "Disclosive systems thinking" takes a critical stance with respect to the normative views inherent in the current systems methodologies, the whole spectrum from "hard systems thinking" to "critical systems thinking." This paper examines which normative principles hold for "disclosive systems thinking", focusing on a comparison with the major commitments of "critical systems thinking."

Key words: systems methodology, "disclosive systems thinking," "critical systems thinking," disclosure, intrinsic normativity

Control of Technology Trasfer: a Global Metamodel

Guillermo Rodriguez Abitia and L. L. Schkade

The need is great for a holistic enforceable control system to protect peoples' quality of life. This paper employs a macrolevel perspective to examine causal factors associated with information technologies diffusion across nations and cultures. A general systemic metacontrol model is proposed, followed by conclusions and directions for future research.

Old Perceptions, New Thinking

James N Rose
Ceptual Institute
1271 Bronco Circle Minden NV 89423

B.Antal Banathy’s call for this 1999 meeting of the International Society for the System Sciences brings the sentiments and goals of the General Systems Theory founders back to the forefront again - the universe is a concurrence of many diverse processes - a singular and compatible concurrence. So, it is not unreasonable to assume that that “compatibility” may indeed be understood as shared qualities and fundamental characteristics, which have simply been seen in alternative expressions of form and guises prior to now. By examination and careful evaluation it should be possible to determine what those shared characteristics, relationships, and mechanisms are.

This presentation will be an effort to examine and specifically example what the challenge of a search for such truly new ways of thinking entails. We start from preconditioned biases, forcing ourselves to become aware of those constraints first, and then move on toward generic interpretations of events and processes that we see, marking similarities and setting criteria standards for how the search should best proceed. We bring all our previous knowledge with us, placing it on the observation table, and allow it to be dissected as if it were something totally new and unknown. No vested interests, no seniority, and the obligation to account for divergent perceptions. The old thoughts are assumed to harbor inherent insights, even as our goal is a new,
more complete, and all encompassing vision. By determining the shared characteristics of ‘systems’ and ‘processes’ we can producing a true General Theory.

The result can only be as Banathy has phrased it ... we will literally re-vision ourselves ... and give humanity the choice of trying new behaviors that re-synchronize values with companion universe that throngs in and around us.

Con Mala Persona, el Remedio: Mucho Tierra en Media
(The only path to temporary peace!)

Rudolf Starkermann
Juchstrasse 22
CH-5436 Wuerenlos, Switzerland

The title of the Spanish proverb ”The remedy for a malicious person: much land between”, is as old as Methuselah. Numerous proverbs and sayings in cultured languages point out that being reticent in communicating and to refrain from expressing the own opinion is advantageous, saves embarrassments and avoids conflicts. The social-psychological implication is that the person who either retains information, or the person who avoids receiving conflict related information, gains for his own welfare, physio-psychologically for his own self-realization. A mathematical model verifies that the further apart in time communication occurs the greater is the self-realization of each partner. There are two hypothetical modes of interaction established through which information can become transferred: The unconscious and the conscious. Both, time delay and reduction of the amount of transferred information, form quasi a product in their effect.

The mathematical model illustrates that the longer the interactive information is delayed, the more power can be manifested by each partner for his own interests and, as consequence, the higher is the self-realization of each one of the partners. In the old times, when the saying was created, delay-time and space were directly related to each other. Today, as there is information transfer via satellites, it is increased time delay only which can serve to retard the transmission.

There are two basic patterns of behavioral interaction investigated, conciliatory and aggressive relationships. Due to these two patterns, the model reveals the following facts:

a) The interaction between two individuals results in mutual help if the relationship is conciliatory. This help is very minor- but it is help. The interaction ends in considerable damage if the relationship is aggressive. The self-realization in the aggressive case is still somewhat better if the aggression is expressed with delay than without. The proverb holds true in both cases, in conciliatory as well as in aggressive relationships.

Help (or support) and harm (or damage) are compared to the self-realization if there is no communication at all, i.e., if the partners are in an autonomous, in a non-interrelated state. Then it can be said that conciliation adds some self-realization, and aggression subtracts much self-realization from the self-realization of the autonomous state.

b) Unconscious, i.e., inherent conciliatory attitude has an advantage compared to forced, i.e., conscious or intentional conciliation. Unconscious conciliatory information transfer results in more
self-realization than conscious transfer does.

c) Conscious, i.e., planned aggression does more damage to self-realization than unconscious aggression if the action is explosive (Blitzkrieg-like).

d) With time-delay conscious, intentional aggression, is better than unconscious or subconscious aggression, because the will-power for self-realization is higher in the action of conscious information transfer than in unconscious. In general, high will-power results in more self-realization than low will-power.

f) As a general statement, conciliation is always advantageous, i.e., it increases self-realization, and aggression is always disadvantageous, i.e., it reduces self-realization.

Systems Models Provide a View of Psychological Self-Organization

Edward J. Reese , Maryann Reese, and Miriam R. Tausner
Southern Institute of NLP, Box 529
Indian Rocks Beach, FL 33785

Chaos theory gives us a way of looking at psychological patterns and understanding their variations. Scientists studying chaos note that when enough complexly interacting elements are brought together, rather than creating chaos, order seems to form spontaneously as a result of the interaction. Self-organization provides a rich source for generative and ecological applications of system thinking by placing the source for the change within the individual. Order in interconnected systems of elements arises around psychological states and are called attractors and create an attractor landscape or basins of attraction. We see that creating and stabilizing new attractor states and destabilizing old attractor states can lead to healthier psychological self-organization.

In this paper we discuss the therapeutic approaches utilized by Edward and Maryann Reese. We look at attractor states as experiential states with visual, auditory, kinesthetic, gustatory, and olfactory components. We discuss energy in the form of triggers, which repel humans from old attractor states and propel them into new attractor states. Since these are attractor states on the psychological landscape, we can usefully model them as having depth and width.

Previous psychological models have addressed change from the perspective of destabilizing the negative attractor, i.e., psychoanalysis. Or, they have addressed creating a new positive attractor state without destabilizing the past negative attractor state. In this new model the Reeses are working to destabilize the negative basin of attraction (a trauma) by perturbing and interrupting with chaos or confusion and creating a new positive basin of attraction.

The Reeses identify the triggers that propel the individual into the negative state and utilize a new set of triggers for the basin of positive attractors . They create chaos or confusion to interrupt the pattern of moving into the old negative basin and propel the person in a different direction to a healthier positive attractor state. This system involves destabilizing the old basin of attraction and stabilizing the new basin.
The power of these general systems models is continually being validated as we apply them to in this way.

Cultural Lag Theory in the Context of Change in Social Systems
Teoría del Retraso Cultural en el Contexto de Cambio en Sistemas Sociales

Rolando Salazar Vargas
Senior Researcher and Lecturer
Andean Institute of Systems - IAS
P.O. Box 18 - 0680, Lima 18, Peru

Change in social systems is seen from the standpoint of the Theory of Catastrophes. In our modern age, change is originated more and more by the economic imperative and the technological advancement. Instead of managing change in order to adapt to the environment, modern man creates his own environment and modifies his natural surroundings. With the advent of the so-called Industrial Revolution in the Western countries, change has come about from the joint action of scientific research and technological innovation. In retrospect, when considering the cumulative effect of this conjunction of factors, it is essential to stress the acceleration of the rate of change. The differential effect of change upon several dimensions of social reality. Institutionally, a lag develops in the capacity of institutions and social technologies to assimilate change coming from the technological dynamics, which in turn is brought about by the incentives of the Capitalist system. This lag takes the shape of tension in different points of the social system with its corresponding contradictions. In turn, this phenomenon can be traced to an ingrained inability of social systems to alter their values subsystem fast and significantly (including myths and beliefs that nurture the collective mind). This situation is conceptually analyzed from the vantage point of paradigmatic change. The conclusion is that it is necessary to understand the process in order to forecast the technological impact more accurately, and to begin to anticipate the trends of change.

El cambio en los sistemas sociales es observado desde el punto de vista de la teoría de Catástrofes. En la era moderna, el cambio más y más es originado por el imperativo económico y el avance tecnológico. En lugar de administrar el cambio para adaptarse al ambiente, el hombre moderno cada vez va creando su propio ambiente y modificando el entorno natural. Con el advenimiento de la llamada Revolución Industrial en los países de Occidente, el cambio ha provenido de la acción conjunta de la investigación científica y la innovación tecnológica. Retrospectivamente, al considerar el efecto acumulativo de esta conjunción de factores, es fundamental resaltar la aceleración en la tasa de cambio. Se analiza el efecto diferencial del cambio sobre diferentes dimensiones de la realidad social. A nivel institucional, se produce un retraso en la capacidad de las instituciones y tecnologías sociales de asimilar el cambio proveniente de la dinámica tecnológica, en un marco de incentivos económicos proporcionados por el sistema capitalista. Este retraso se manifiesta en tensión en diferentes puntos del sistema social y sus correspondientes contradicciones. El fenómeno a su vez se puede rastrear a una dificultad innata de los sistemas sociales de alterar rápida y significativamente su subsistema de valores (incluyendo mitologías y creencias que nutren la mentalidad colectiva). Conceptualmente se analiza esta situación desde el punto de vista del cambio paradigmático. Se concluye que es necesario entender el proceso para poder formular pronósticos de impacto tecnológico más realistas, y para empezar a anticipar las tendencias del cambio.

Information Technology and the Scientific Worldview

Arnold Smith
Institute for Information Technology
National Research Council of Canada
Ottawa, Canada K1A 0R6

Although it is hard to be sure about this, it seems likely that Western culture has reached a crisis-a crisis foreshadowed since at least the time of Blake. There are many perspectives on this condition, from the vantage points of economics, ecology, philosophy, history, physics, psychology and cognitive science, feminism, art and literary criticism, “new age” spirituality … and in each of these fields we find authors writing passionately and well about the urgency and depth of change. In computer science and information technology, on the other hand, there is little sense of crisis. The field is so new, relatively speaking, and change is so rapid and ubiquitous, that it is hard to imagine how awareness of broader crisis could come from within the field.

And yet if we pay attention, the symptoms of malaise are as evident within computer science and the practice of information technology as anywhere else, and the need for a change of direction is no less pressing. This is hardly surprising-computing is both a quintessential product of our culture, and one of the defining forces shaping its evolution. Because of this intimate and crucial relationship, we can expect to find the deeper core issues showing through in the practice of computing, and can also expect to enrich our view of the cultural issues by looking at them from an information science perspective.

In my paper I will point to the problematic relationship between abstract, conceptual, language-based thinking on the one hand, and the rich, fluid, recalcitrant nature of reality and of human experience on the other. Information technology, taking its cue from natural science, is implicitly committed to views of the world that are expressed as abstract models-manipulating such models is exactly what computers are (currently) designed for. Despite the extraordinary power of this kind of abstraction however, we as humans would never survive if we did not have also have recourse to other, and older, modes of knowing our world. The consequences of this exclusive reliance are computer systems that are unintuitive, that often crash, that fail to deliver on promises of intelligence and adaptiveness. But this is not simply a computer science issue. The pride of place accorded to abstract modeling in the wider society has profound consequences-environmental destruction, inhuman bureaucracies, and a pervasive individual sense of loss, of being out of harmony with the world. We need a more adequate worldview, not only to build better computer systems, but to survive.

In arguing these points, I will draw not only on computer science research, but on Buddhist Dzogchen and Madhyamika philosophy, as well as on many of the Western disciplines mentioned earlier.

New Paradigm of Self-Organization for the Study of Social Systems

Yong Pil Rhee
College of Education, Seoul National University
Sillim-Dong Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 KOREA

A paradigm is used to decide which methods of investigation and which solutions can be regarded as permissible. As a rule, a paradigm includes a generally-accepted theoretical foundation. But the paradigm of self-organization embodies the further difficulty that it does not contain a unified theoretical nucleus. We cannot yet speak of the theory of self-organization. However, the theoretical nucleus of the paradigm of self-organization is at present a conglomeration of widely differing theoretical approaches. In this paper, from the nonequilibrium thermodynomic theoretical view point, I am going to suggest the paradigm of self-organization for the study of social systems.

Keywords: paradigm, self-organization, nonequilibrium thermodynomics,
dynamic social system.

A Systemic Pragmatist Theory of the Meaning of Life

Carl Slawski
Sociology Department, CSULB

Life is a biochemical condition. Life writ large is a challenging mystery. Living ranges from a struggle for survival to an exhilirating process of seeking self and social actualization. Physical science has largely taken a measurable, reductionist, paradigmatic view; humanistic approaches range from story to myth in lived experience; social science takes a middle road, combining elements of its older sister disciplines. Post-modernist views seek to deconstruct all roads, but rarely reconstructing them into a new synthesis. Can the many-cultures debate help us arrive at a holistic, synthetic, ethical and fulfilling lifestyle? A bare-bones graphic general systemic, four-box flow diagram will be used as a starting point for provoking discussion, contrasted with a number of maxims for good living.

The American Pragmatist school of philosophy underlies the sociological social psychology known as Symbolic Interactionism. It is based on the work of George Herbert Mead with kindred spirits like John Dewey, and many predecessors going back to Charles Sanders Peirce and William James, not to mention Herbert George Blumer, Mead’s chosen successor who taught Mead’s courses at the University of Chicago after Mead died in 1931. Mead’s lectures were edited into four books. The one most referred to by sociologists is Mind, Self and Society, but I will also refer directly to The Philosophy of the Act. The author’s four-box flow diagram will be employed to show the feedback and feedforward processes that allow us to see the whole picture while in turn focusing on a temporarily closed sub-system. The four domains extracted from the whole view of social (as well as physical life) are those of: 1) the actor or person (or in general the control center in focus), 2) effects of the actor’s behavior on the environment and system of relationships, 3) other persons, groups, society, problems and programs of action, and 4) information gathering mechanisms. The complexity and uniqueness of human social interaction is thus easily contrasted with the domain of physical science where human empathy and the capacity for drawing analogies and experiencing the looking-glass self (C. H. Cooley) is not an issue. Thus it is harder to do research in social than in the physical sciences. But when all is said and done, even qualitative science rarely reaches the occasional insight and creative heights of the poet or essayist. These many realms of inquiry in the long run are complementary, and in some form all necessary to a fuller understanding. Predictability and explanatory power, let alone descriptive prescience, among the author’s 33 criteria for a good theory, may all have to be subordinated to the value of story as a medium for obtaining insight and human understanding, an understanding that is intimately related to the personal experience of flow and creativity (a la Csikszentmihalyi and Carl Rogers, not to mention Shakespeare, and the even more ancient philosophers and founders of world religions) ideally consummating in good if not admirable and altruistic personal conduct.

While taking a general systemic point of view encompassing the scientific and idealistic philosophical views, the author can probably best be described as coming from a moderate critical realist viewpoint that expresses itself in a pragmatist way, while keeping the doors open to all but the most extreme reductionist and eclectic attitudes. Perhaps the author’s methodology can be entitled one of a “temporarily limited reduction” in a creative general systemic context, punctuated with the flow of openness to creativity, but ultimately aimed toward the spiritual view of the unending search for self actualization and social realization. [99139]

Faith without the Supernatural:
Faith as a Response to the Existential Implications of Systems Theory

Jeffrey S. Sinn, Winthrop University, USA

Systems theory views the world as an integrated system, and therefore suggests a monistic worldview. For example, Gregory Bateson argued God was immanent in the natural order rather than transcendent. Such a perspective raises the existential question: As finite beings conscious of a larger, integrated whole, how do we respond? I believe the ethos of systems theory suggests we respond by striving for integrity. In moving towards integrity, the individual strives for both differentiation and integration. In other words, the individual must embrace the world, achieving the religious perspective John Dewey called "a sense of the whole," and yet find the sacred in the world, identifying the source of purpose and providence which Paul Tillich called "the object of ultimate concern."

The process of faith enables an individual to both embrace the whole and find the sacred. We can define faith as the belief in a sacred source of purpose and providence in the world, and the unqualified commitment to this source. The receptive dimension of faith prods the believer to look for the sacred source of purpose and providence in the natural order, what Gregory Bateson called the "pattern that connects." The speculative dimension prods the believer to represent the sacred aspect of the whole symbolically, so that it can serve as a centering point for integration. Recognizing the complexity of the world, the believer realizes that she can never know the sacred directly, and so represents the sacred symbolically. Recognizing the insights of second order cybernetics, the believer realizes her chosen symbol affects the world. For example, the believer recognizes that the symbol of God can originate as an emergent property of a community of believers, and then become an active force in history. The believer recognizes with Gregory Bateson that epistemology can affect ontology, that belief can transform the world.

Toward a Cybernetic Model of the Organism

Savely Savva
3855 Via Nona Marie, Ste 102-c
Carmel, CA 93923 USA

The concept of biofield engendered by developmental biologists at the end of the last century was popular in biology until the 1950s. Then, biochemistry and molecular biology took over. However, it becomes increasingly obvious that the lack of a general picture of the organism as a super-complex hierarchical automation stands in the way of the progress in biology and medicine.

The physics of the biofield and its coordinating function is unknown and probably will remain unknown for a long time. Many attempts to find physical carriers of information in the biofield function made recently by physicists are still at the embryonic stage of development. Indeed, the task is tremendously difficult. The general control system must contain programs of development, maintenance, reproduction and death and must have a common language with all subsystems controlling consciousness and physiology that utilize various carriers of information: electrical spikes - through neurons' wiring, chemical molecules - through blood and lymph circulation, electromagnetic field - found in coherent vibrations within organs and tissues, indeterminate carrier of what is called Qi or prana in the oriental tradition that circulates through acupuncture meridians and chakras.

In the absence of this knowledge, the only way to study the biofield and its general control function is the phenomenological approach. I suggest two lines of experimental inquiry:

1. Study into comprehensive physiological response of an organism (of all somatic control subsystems) to psi healing that can be conceived as a direct biofield interaction, and

2. Study of possible genetic commonness between children with memories of past life and with birthmarks and birth defects, and those deceased with whom they identify themselves.

Dialectics of Social Dynamics

Savely Savva
3855 Via Nona Marie, Ste 102-c
Carmel, CA 93923 USA

Dialectics of social dynamics lies definitely not in the process of production of goods, as Marx suggested (contradiction between productive forces and relation of production). The essence of social dynamics is changes in social normativity but this is also not the driving force of social history. More often this is the consequence of changes in social organization. The real driving dialectic force of human social dynamics lies in the dual nature of control.

As a representative of the vertebrates humans inherited a natural mechanism of forming and maintaining the biological population. This mechanism is based on psychological drives (thalamic emotions, after Astvatsaturov), biologically programmed preferences, attractions and fears. Among these drives is the preference to control others rather than being controlled, to increase ones social, to obtain dominance rank in the population. This is certainly related to the increased possibility to promote ones genes into future generations. However, the energy of this drive, the strength of motivation is distributed unevenly among members of a population, and this provides for the hierarchical structure of populations of many vertebrate species. A change of leadership, i.e. replacement of a dominant individual may lead to individual changes in the hierarchy but it does not represent a significant change in the structure and in the control over the population's behavior.

In addition to this mechanism of control, humans, thanks to the increased intellectual and communicative abilities, are controlled by norms (including values) of a current social organization into which they are born. Thus, highly motivated individuals fighting for power, for positions of influence must confront not a dominant individual but a complex institution carrying and enforcing the social normative system. This goes through formation of a social counter-organization with a counter ideology (if the dominating organization does not effectively suppress this) and social revolutions that may be successful at times of social (economic, political) instability.

Considering the existence of two psychological types of humans in any population that are different in the level of their motivation for power (not necessarily political) - the majority who would not risk stability for power and minority who would risk - there is no consistent set of criteria against which quality of a society could be judged. Accordingly, governing a society is an art of balancing between stability and economic and military progress.

Complex Societies: The Evolutionary Origins of a Crude

Peter J. Richerson and Robert Boyd
Department of Environmental Science and Policy
University of California, Davis
One Shields Avenue
Davis, CA, 95616

Over the last few thousand years, human social complexity has increased dramatically. Modern societies exceed the complexity of the advanced social insect colonies. We can undertake large scale cooperative ventures, such as the construction of road nets. Our division of is extreme; at least tens of distinct occupations collaborate directly in the construction of roads, for example. At the same time, there is much more conflict within our complex societies than is the case in advanced social insects and analogous biological entities. A theory of human ultra-sociality has to account for both the successes and crudities of our social systems. We propose a social instincts hypothesis derived from gene-culture coevolution theory. Evolutionary theory suggests that kin selection is the main mechanism responsible for ultra-sociality in other species, but in the human case, families are small. Models of cultural evolution suggest that group selection can be a potent force on cultural variation. The persistence of small family groups, and other small scale social institutions, in complex societies suggest that ordinary sociobiological forces remain strong in human societies. The existence of large scale institutions suggests that cultural group selection has been effective. We argue that group selection on culture in the Pleistocene produced cultural environments that selected for prosocial "tribal" social instincts without erasing the ancient kin-based instincts inherited from our remote primate ancestors. Even in simple human societies, these instincts are often in conflict. Complex societies add another set of large scale cultural insitutions that often conflict with both the ancient and tribal instincts. That the large scale institutions function at all testifies to the power of cultural group selection and derivative processes. That high levels of conflict are endemic to human social systems testifies to the multiple levels at which selection has (and is) operating on human populations. In this respect, human societies are analogous to the first crude multi-gene assemblages, the first crude endosymbiont eucaryotes, first crude multi-cellular organisms, and the sub- and semi-social insects.

On the Subsystems Processing the Energy and Information
in the Current Relations between South and North Korea

Youn-Soo Sim
Faculty of Social Sciences, Honam University

Although the regular channel of dialogues between the south and the north Korea is not active, the exchange of energy and information in non-political areas appears to have developed significantly in recent years. This development, though not serious enough to influence the whole relations between both sides, is expected in the long run to contribute to achieving the reunification of Korea. In this sense, it is very significant to take a close look at the subsystems that process the energy and information in the current relations between the south and the north Korea.

KEDO, one of the subsystems, has played an important role in easing the tension in the Korean peninsula, and a general consensus has been made that it should continue or expand its positive role in the future. The main objective of this study, then, is to examine the a variety of subsystems in regard to the south-north relations by using the model developed by James Grier Miller who in his biological studies proposed the possibility of as many as 20 subsystems underlying all phenomena including the human world.

Complex Societies: The Evolutionary Origins of a Crude

Peter J. Richerson(1) and Robert Boyd
(1) Department of Environmental Science and Policy
University of California, Davis
One Shields Avenue
Davis, CA, 95616

Over the last few thousand years, human social complexity has increased dramatically. Modern societies exceed the complexity of the advanced social insect colonies. We can undertake large scale cooperative ventures, such as the construction of road nets. Our division of is extreme; at least tens of distinct occupations collaborate directly in the construction of roads, for example. At the same time, there is much more conflict within our complex societies than is the case in advanced social insects and analogous biological entities. A theory of human ultra-sociality has to account for both the successes and crudities of our social systems. We propose a social instincts hypothesis derived from gene-culture coevolution theory. Evolutionary theory suggests that kin selection is the main mechanism responsible for ultra-sociality in other species, but in the human case, families are small. Models of cultural evolution suggest that group selection can be a potent force on cultural variation. The persistence of small family groups, and other small scale social institutions, in complex societies suggest that ordinary sociobiological forces remain strong in human societies. The existence of large scale institutions suggests that cultural group selection has been effective. We argue that group selection on culture in the Pleistocene produced cultural environments that selected for prosocial "tribal" social instincts without erasing the ancient kin-based instincts inherited from our remote primate ancestors. Even in simple human societies, these instincts are often in conflict. Complex societies add another set of large scale cultural insitutions that often conflict with both the ancient and tribal instincts. That the large scale institutions function at all testifies to the power of cultural group selection and derivative processes. That high levels of conflict are endemic to human social systems testifies to the multiple levels at which selection has (and is) operating on human populations. In this respect, human societies are analogous to the first crude multi-gene assemblages, the first crude endosymbiont eucaryotes, first crude multi-cellular organisms, and the sub- and semi-social insects.

The Ways and Means of Heathy, Authentic Community

Sherryl R. Stalinski
The Aurora Now Foundation
5111 E. Camino Francisco Soza, Tucson AZ 85718

It seems to us there is a better way.

There is a better way for humanity to live in the world, there is a better way for us to live within our families and our neighborhoods. There is a better way for us to approach our careers and a better way to involve ourselves in civic, cultural and other organizations. Even more so, there is a better way to prepare our children for the vast complexities which will face them as they grow.

That way is through healthy and authentic community. For our purpose here, we define “community” as “a way of being together with both individual authenticity and interpersonal harmony so that people become able to function with a collective energy even greater than the sum of their individual energies.(1) But even beyond community, we must seek to intentionally create within our lives environments of healthy and authentic communities as a process by which we can most effectively carry out our collective “work.” Research and wisdom shared within the environment of the systems sciences can provide understanding, knowledge and methods of practical application to support this end. In order for the academic and scholarly discipline of systems science to truly benefit humanity, its application naturally should include our human activity systems--our communities.

Keywords: Community, stewardship, human systems, relationship, conflict, conversations, diversity, evolution, design, co-creation.

Towards Measuring Organizational Performance
Hacia la Medida de la Eficiencia de las Organizaciones

Prof. Francisco Parra-Luna
Facultad de CC. Políticas y Sociología
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
E-28023 Pozuelo de Alarcón (Madrid), Spain

Social organizations can be conceived as ¨transforming machines¨. This analogy allow us to define the global overall performance of social organizations as the relationship: ¨Performance¨ (T) = "Outputs" (Y) / "Inputs" (X). That is to say, the bigger the Outputs (which are always complex systems of universal values) and the smaller the Inputs (or resources used), the higher the Performance. For instance, the present article would present, inevitably, a "transforming system", since we use a series of means (mainly our time) in order to get a system of values where we should stress the modest knowledge the reader gleans through his/her reading of this article. The transforming analogy could then represent correctly this process.

Therefore the Outputs obtained (Y), will depend on the transforming organizational process (T) and on the Inputs (X) used. But according to the accumulated experience, what is significant and decisive in reaching high levels of Outputs "Y", is the Organization (T), much more than the Inputs (X). For this reason the general management policy is to emphasize the importance of the organization variable (mainly the human resources employed) based on the knowledge we already have of the laws and scientific relationships between the elements which form the system.

According to many authors, the importance of the organizational aspects will grow in the future (Toffler, Naisbit, Bell, ...).

Consequently, we could propose the following syllogism:

a). Human beings shape a social system solely for the purpose of obtaining a better synergetic product (Y), which is always a complex system of values.

b). This synergetic product is explained mainly by the quality of the organizational system (T), and not only by its natural "autopoietic process" (Maturana and Varela), and

c). Then, the essential sociological problem can be none other than the analysis (description and explanation) of the subsystem "T", but after and only after, we have came to know the system of values "Y" which have been produced or should have been produced. Or in other words: before attempting an explanation we have to know "what to explain".

For this purpose, the fact the system of values "Y" as well as the Inputs used "X" can be operationally defined, measured and even quantified, through the well known methodological procedure which starts with the image of the concept and finishes with the composite index of subjective and objectives empirical indicators (Lazarfeld), can be helpful.

Key words: Measuring, performance, organization, system of values, input, output


Las organizaciones pueden concebirse como máquinas transformadoras. Dicha analogía nos permite conocer la eficiencia global de cualquier sociedad a través de la expresión T = Y/X, esto es, “T” (la organización) será mayor cuanto mayores son las salidas “Y” (o sistema de valores producido) y menores las entradas “X” (o recursos utilizados), p.e., el presente artículo representaría inevitablemente un sistema de transformación donde utilizamos una serie de entradas o medios (principalmente nuestro tiempo) para obtener un sistema de valores (entre los que destaca sin duda el modesto conocimiento) que se derivaría de la evaluación del lector. La analogía transformadora parece, pues, representar correctamente el proceso.

Lo que obtengamos (Y) depender de “T” (organización) y de “X” (recursos) pero la experiencia ha demostrado que resulta mucho más decisiva o explicativa la “T” que la “X”. De ahí la importancia creciente del concepto de organización basada en el conocimiento de leyes y relaciones científicas entre los elementos que componen los recursos utilizados ( Bell, Tofler, Naisbitt, etc..).

De todo ello se puede establecer el siguiente silogismo:

Los individuos forman una asociación solo y exclusivamente porque persiguen un valor añadido (Y), expresable solo y exclusivamente éste por un sistema de valores.
Dicho valor añadido (sinergía social) es explicado, principalmente, por la propia Organización (T) interna a través de su capacidad de “autopoiesis” sistémica (Maturana y Varela).
Luego el tema sociológico central no podría ser otro que el análisis (descripción y explicación) del conjunto “T” en tanto que sistema transformador, cosa que como sabemos no se hace, salvo, bastante imperfectamente por cierto, en el mundo empresarial donde se ven obligados a considerar la empresa como un todo productor de beneficios o de pérdidas.

Que tanto “Y” (el sistema de valores producido), como “X” (los medios empleados), son en la mayoría de los casos válidamente cuantificables a través del conocido proceso de las definiciones operacionales (Lazarsfeld) que pasa de la imagen conceptual teórica al conjunto de indicadores empíricos (objetivos y subjetivos).

Palabras Clave: Medida, rendimiento, organizaci'on, sistema de valores, entrada, salida

Child Health Systems Development:
A General Systems Theory Based Approach

John Reiss, Ph.D., Director of Policy and Program Affairs
Institute for Child Health Policy
5700 SW 34th Street, Suite 323, Gainesville, Florida 32608 USA

In 1989, the US Congress passed Federal legislation (Title V of the Social Security Act, OBRA ’89) that requires States (in the USA) to use Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Block Grants funds to provide and promote family-centered, community-based coordinated care and to facilitate the development of community-based system of services for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and their families. In 1991 a goal was included in the US National Healthy People 2000 Objectives to establish family-centered, community-based systems of services in 50 states by the year 2000 (Goal 17.10). The Maternal and Child Health Bureau (US Department of Health and Human Services) has responsibility for administering the MCH Block Grant and for supporting progress in achieving Goal 17.10.

Since 1989, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau’s Division of Services for Children with Special Needs has funded the Institute for Child Health Policy (ICHP) to support the Bureau in carrying out its responsibilities to facilitate systems development. As articulated by MCHB, family-centered CSHCN systems involves the organization and delivery of health care services that meet the emotional, social, and developmental needs of children; and involves family/professional collaboration at all levels, especially in planning, implementing, and evaluating programs and their related policies and practices. ICHP developed a General Systems Theory (GST) based approach to supporting MCHB’s dynamic multi-level, multi-organizational, multi-discipline efforts to facilitate systems development. A set of GST principles are used as a heuristic framework to formulate and revise ICHP’s strategic agenda; and to support the design, development, implementation, and assessment of specific initiatives in support of that agenda. Key components of the heuristic framework include: systems follow the principles of hierarchical organization and wholeness; no single element or group of elements within an open system can act independently; equifinality (open systems can reach the same final state from different initial conditions); omnipotentiality (living systems reach different final states from the same initial conditions).cohesion (living systems must maintain sufficient closeness among subsystems and components); morphogenesis (the ability to develop a higher order of complexity, increase hierarchical organization and complexity of structure). Based on GST, "health" is conceptualized at the "ability of a system to respond adaptively to a wide variety of environmental challenges.
The ICHP long-term strategic agenda includes: 1) facilitating heirararchical interaction through the development of an MCH-specific e-mail and bulletin board system from 1988-93, and transition of MCH to use of Internet (e-mail, listservs, Web sites, etc.) from 1993 to present; 2) facilitating heirararchical interaction through federal workgroups that support interorganizational communication, coordinate policy and launch multi-agency grant initiatives (i.e. Department of Defense/DHHS Task Force on CSHCN; Supplemental Security Income/CSHCN Workgroup; Healthy and Ready to Work Interagency Workgroup [MCHB, Social Security Administration, Dept. Labor, Dept. Ed., Health Care Financing Administration); 3) implementation of ongoing annual multi-state training and action oriented workshops for teams of CSHCN system constituents (families, state agency staff, pediatricians, children’s hospitals, managed care organizations); 4) implementation of national learning-at-a distance conferences on CSHCN policy and programs that promote community-based interaction and train participants to use distance learning technology to address ongoing organizational responsibilities. Through these activities, ICHP strives to shape and create the context, at the federal, state and local levels, within which appropriate forms of self-organization (morphogenesis) are likely to occur.

Technical assistance, training and support activities for CSHCN leaders promotes a dynamic systems approach to organizational development. This leadership approach involves a focus on loops, not lines; emphasizing the value of diverse points of view; promoting use of parallel information processing and more use of real-time information; decentralization; increasing the number of people with external contacts; using ambiguous challenges that inspire innovative responses; facilitating self-organization and emergence through interactions and dialogue; valuing stories about the organizations past, present and future; and increasing the quality of connections between people.

Application of the Systems Approach to the Design of Educational Systems
Aplicacion del Enfoque de Sistemas al Diseño de Sistemas Educacionales

Rafael Rodríguez Delgado
Presidente Honorario
Sociedad Española de Sistemas Generales (SESGE)
Dr. Gomez Ulla 4, 5to. D,
28028, Madrid, España.

The present educational systems, as the generality of specialized authors affirm, prove to be inadequate for the societies in development as well as for the societies based on electronics, communication and information.

Already, at the beginning of the last decade, an international inform (UNESCO, 1981), examined the possibility of the application of the systems approach to the analysis of educational systems, its restrictions, interlinkages, innovation and transformation possibilities, and the more efficient use of the resources, specially en the Third World.

Since that, are unnumbered the international meetings which have examined so important theme. Stand out among them is the FUSCHL Conversations, which took its name from a beautiful Austrian lake, where, near to its shores, in a comfortable hotel, the initial conversations took place, under the direction of Bela H. Banathy. The Conversations, three of them were held in Spain, in Alicante, Murcia and Valencia, continues now its activities in diverse countries. In them it have been obtained very valuable conclusions concerning the application of systems thinking in education.

However, although the advances achieved, the educational situation, in developed countries as well as in those underdeveloped, has been progressively deteriorating. High enrolment and books costs, school massification, inadequate relationships with the modern sciences and technologies, obsolete contents, lack of motivation, school violence, methodological stagnation and other problems, has produced a situation which threats the knowledge and culture of future generations

In contrast, there are not a lack of hoping signs. It Arises the wish to experiment with new ideas and it looks that the time has arrived to test, in a deep way and in diverse social environments, the possibilities of systemic thinking and its methods to renew the present educational systems.

The present paper tries to offer a macroscopic perception of some of the methdological principles and the main systems thinking applications for the design of educational systems. It is hope also that this approach leads to orient the creative and innovator redesign of schools and educational systems.

Key Words: Educational systems, development, underdevelopment, society, systems thinking, systems approach.

Principles of a Quantitative Living Systems Science:

James R. Simms
Simms Industries, Inc.
Fulton, Maryland

The fundamental principles of a quantitative living systems science have been developed for individuals and are presented in this paper. These principles are (1) behaviors of individuals are observable and measurable by the energies used in these behaviors, (2) individuals have a unique behavioral characteristic which is a capacity to direct energy, (3) an individual's capacity to direct energy is a function of its structure and organization, (4) an individual's capacity to direct energy can be quantified (measured or calculated), (5) an individual's behavior is a function of the energy available to the individual, (6) an individual's behavior is a function of behavioral information, (7) behavioral information is the ability to cause work and can be measured by the work it causes, and (8) an individual's behavior is a direct function of the its capacity to direct energy, to available energy, and to behavioral information. All individuals from a single cell through humans generate, process, and use both genetic and biochemical information. In addition to genetic and biochemical information, animals generate, process and use neural information.

Towards a Latin American View of the Application of System
Dynamics in Organizational Studies
Hacia un Mirar Latinoamericano de la Aplicación de la Dinámica
De Sistemas en Estudios Organizacionales

Ricardo Sotaquirá Gutiérrez
Facultad de Ingeniería de Sistemas. Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga (UNAB), Colombia. Email: rsotaqui@bumanga.unab.edu.co
Lilia Nayibe Gélvez Pinto
Departamento de Ingenierías y Tecnologías. Universidad de Pamplona, Colombia.
José Daniel Cabrera Cruz
Facultad de Sistemas. Corporación Tecnológica Centrosistemas, Bucaramanga, Colombia.

The present article will reflect about the use of System Dynamics (SD) in Latin American Organizations.

It proposes, as desirable, a holistic and critical view, that reviews critically the methdology and its relationship with its source context, before to think in its praxis, and reflects on how it suits the praxis within the Latin American socio and cultural context. This proposal arise on the reflection on how the application of SD should be in local organizations. Such reflection led to an interpretative work on the present field of the SD's organizational applications which led to the elaboration of a clasifier schema on praxis styles. This schema opened new possibilities in understanding on our proper praxis and its relationship with a Latin American way to view the systemic practice in organizations.

Key Words: System Dynamics, Organizational Studies, Critical Thinking, Latin American Organizations.


El presente artículo reflexionará acerca del uso de la Dinámica de Sistemas (DS), en las organizaciones latinoamericanas.
Se propone como deseable un mirar, holístico-crítico, que revise criticamente la metodología y su relación con su contexto fuente, antes de pensar en su praxis, y reflexione cómo encaja dicha praxis en el contexto social y cultural latinoamericano,. Esta propuesta surgió de la reflexión sobre cómo debería ser la aplicación de DS en organizaciones locales. Tal reflexión dio origen a un trabajo de interpretación del campo actual de las aplicaciones organizacionales de la DS que condujo a elaborar un esquema clasificador de estilos de praxis. Este esquema abrió nuevas posibilidades de entendimiento sobre nuestra propia praxis y su relación con una manera latinoamericana de mirar el ejercicio sistémico en organizaciones.

Palabras Clave: Dinámica de Sistemas; estudios organizacionales; pensamiento crítico; organizaciones latinoamericanas

The Paradigm Shift from Dietetics to Nutrition in the
United States Health Care system and a Look Into the Future

Elizabeth Pavka
Saybrook Graduate School
9 Von Ruck Terrace
Asheville, NC 28801 USA

A significant paradigm shift is now taking place in the fields of food and nutrition in the USHCS. The old dietetics paradigm, as reflected by the American Dietetic Association, has several underlying assumptions: (1) one way of eating is appropriate for all people; (2) a person can get all the substances needed for optimum health from food; (3) supplementation with vitamins and minerals is not necessary. These assumptions no longer support optimum health for Americans. The new paradigm, as reflected by HealthComm, International, Inc., is built upon the following assumptions:
(1) a person's nutritional needs are unique and directly related to, and dictated by, genetics; (2) food is inadequate to provide all nutrients needed for health; 3) supplementation is integral to optimum health. Complete integration of the nutrition paradigm will enhance the health-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the USHCS. A vision of the application of the nutrition paradigm in the year 2025 is presented.

The Design of Learning Process for Ethical Cognition

Jiwoon Park
Department of National Ethics Study, Seoul National University
Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742, Korea
E-mail : pawoon@chollian.net

Ethical cognition may be experienced by way of the mechanisms of self-organization and creative learning process. Learning processes have many constructive elements which are complicated by the dynamic mechanism of human cognitive system. Because next age is distinguished by the complexity
of information overflow, it is more important than any other times to design of learning process systematically. Many of nations in the world failed to recognize the feature of today's complex crisis. To recover the homeostasis, they are much interested in the economic and educational reforms which aimed to develop the artificial intelligence for the next millennium. Certainly, many people perceive that our world is currently undergoing paradigm shift. Based on this perspective, we can draw some new systemic properties and ethical codes of design for education process from the dynamic mechanisms of cognitive system.

Key word: learning process, cognitive system, ethical codes, self-organization, feed-back, paradigm-shift, complexity, artificial intelligence, design

Complexity of System Transformation in North Korea

Byung Chul Rho
Seoul National University
Sillim-Dong Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 KOREA

This paper is trying to analyze macroscopically the transformation of socialist political system of North Korea using systems approach, especially in a viewpoint of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. A political system can be clssified into authorities, regime, and political community according to the level of analysis. It is the level of regime that this paper is concerned in, and the concrete
object of analysis is the socialist regime of North Korea.

Some Reform Suggestions for the Korean Bureaucracy: A Systems Perspective

Hyo-chong Park (Kyengsang National University, South Korea)
C-307 Samho Garden 3 cha Apt, Banpo 1 dong Seocho-gu,
Seoul, Korea 137-041

Recently Korea has been forced to implement a series of reforms in bureaucratic organizations and corporations to deal with the economic crisis that started in late 1997. The problem of reform in governmental bureaucracy deserves keen attention, partly because the government is responsible for economic mismanagement, and partly because there has been growing criticism of its rigidities and inefficiencies in its modus operandi. The general idea has been to introduce businesslike efficiency and accountability in public organizations. According to reformists, flexible management systems pioneered by the private sector should be adopted by government bureaucracy. As a result, there is a remarkable tendency to move away from the traditional model of bureaucracy to make organizations, employment terms and conditions, and personnel more businesslike. The reform process is best characterized by the words service and customer satisfaction, instead of command and regulations. Thus the trend in Korean public management can be aptly summarized as an introduction of more market principles and competitive elements.

This research wishes to evaluate the on-going reform process in Korean public administration by taking advantage of a newly developed systems approach. The traditional model of bureaucracy organized human interactions under command and control administrations, which consisted largely of multiple levels of mechanistic and rigidly controlled human networks. This public management generally had fixed rules and operating procedures for administrative affairs. However, the government is faced with growing uncertainties in the environment and is expected to be able to capture the uncertainty, rather than to treat public management to be more deterministic in character. It is worth noting that the government is faced with instability and turbulence rather than stability, which was the focus in traditional public management. In this regard, Korea may be a salient example, and systems thinking can provide a valuable insight in suggesting reforms. This research will pay attention to Prigogine's approach to handling chaos and generating order out of chaos, in evaluating the Korean reform efforts. [9989]

Change Management in an Arts Organisation:
The Dominance of Unintended Over Intended Outcome.

Elaine Scott & Dr Lawrence P. Reavill

Department of Management Systems & Information
City University Business School
Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB


The focus of this paper is to determine and study the systemic attributes which lead to the emergent outcomes of change management processes in an arts organisation. These outcomes differ from those expected at the outset of the change management program. This occurred even though careful definitions of objectives, along with detailed and realistic proposed expectations.

This paper will propose that managers are often not prepared for the interactions of the change management process with those processes which lay outside of the programs’ apparent focus. It is in this way that we can see that interactions of the system of interest with the wider system has not been fully recognised. This negligence in turn results in an unintended and often negative outcome.

The paper will conclude that unexpected outcomes will in fact always be present in any change management process due to the systemic properties of emergence and self organisation which are evident in complex feedback systems.

Modeling a Control System for Organizational Processes

Markus Schwaninger(1), Stephen G. Powell, Chris Trimble
(1) Institute of Management
University of St. Gallen
CH-9000 St. Gallen

It is widely accepted that any well-designed organizational process includes a control mechanism through which management decides which aspects of the performance of the process are to be measured and how these measurements are to be used to change the level of resources utilized in the process. Little is known, however, about the best ways to design such a control mechanism for typical service sector processes. The focus of this research is to study how a variety of control mechanisms perform in managing a business process. The goal is to identify control mechanisms that are effective in turbulent as well as in stable environments. This requires modeling both levels, the business process (object level), and the control system (meta level).

The fundamental question we ask here is why control systems so often founder. We only address the logical aspect of modeling, not the socio-logical aspects of model use and of implementation. The scenarios for which we try to establish optimal control systems are ones of stationary, dynamic, and turbulent demand patterns. Extensive simulation experiments corroborate some of the generally acknowledged, basic principles of control, while refuting some of the usually accepted common sense knowledge about management and organization.

Soft System Dynamics Methodology (SSDM): a Tool for Social Systems Analysis and Design
Methodologia Blanda de Dinamica de Sistemas (MBDS):
una Herramienta Para el Analisis y Diseño de Sistemas Sociales

Ricardo Rodríguez-Ulloa
Andean Institute of Systems - IAS
P.O. Box 18-0680, Lima - 18, Peru

This paper shows what is called here Soft System Dynamics Methodology (SSDM), a methodology which arises as a product of the combination of two very well known and powerful systemic approaches for the analysis of complex problem situations: Soft Systems Methodology proposed by Prof. Peter B. Checkland from Lancaster University, U.K., and System Dynamics proposed by Prof. Jay Forrester from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA. The combination of both led to SSDM which emerged from an action research work done by the Andean Institute of Systems - IAS between 1993-97, where different studies where carried out, examining diverse problematic issues existing in the Peruvian reality. Among the studies it can be mentioned pilot projects about sustainable regional development, sustainable national development, the aids virus propagation, the problem of education and development, urban demography, the city water supply problem, the narcotraffic problem, the young delinquency problem in the cities, problems of childhood, the informal sector, the hunger problem, the poverty problem, the fishing industrial sector as well as the analysis of strategic management issues of representative enterprises and organisations of the Country. These experiences were modeling the shape of SSDM.

SSDM is composed by 10 steps and it has proven to be an powerful intellectual tool for studying and understand the behaviour of complex social problematic-situations in dynamic terms through time. Thus, after showing it, this paper examines its application into a project concerned to the problem of employment in the Peruvian construction sector. At the end some conclusions and learning points are mentioned since the theoretical and practical view points.

Key words: Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), Systems Dynamics (SD), Peru, complex problem situations, Soft Systems Dynamics Methodology (SSDM).

Este artículo muestra lo que aquí se denomina la Metodología Blanda de Dinámica de Sistemas (MBDS), una metodología que surge como producto de la combinación de dos enfoques sistémicos muy conocidos y potentes para el análisis de situaciones problemáticas complejas: La Metodología de Sistemas Blandos (MSB) propuesta por el Prof. Peter B. Checkland de la Universidad de Lancaster, Reino Unido y la Dinámica de Sistemas propuesta por el Prof. Jay Forrester del Instituto Tecnológico de Massachusetts (MIT), EE.UU. La combinación de ambas permitió el surgimiento de la MBDS, la cual emergió a partir de un trabajo de investigacion en la acción llevado a cabo por el Instituto Andino de Sistemas - IAS en el período 1993 -97, donde diferentes estudios fueron llevados a cabo, examinándose diversos temas problemáticos existentes en la realidad peruana. Entre los estudios se podrían mencionar estudios piloto sobre el desarrollo regional sustentable, desarrollo nacional sustentable, la propagación del virus del sida, el problema de la educación y el desarrollo, la demografía urbana, el problema de la provisión de agua en la ciudad, el problema del narcotráfico, el problema delicuencial juvenil en las ciudades, problemas de la niñez, el sector informal, el problema del hambre, el problema de la pobreza, el estudio sector industrial pesquero, así como también el análisis del temas de gestión estratégica de gestión en empresas y organizaciones representativas del país. Estas experiencias fueron modelando el perfil de la MBDS.

La MBDS está compuesta por 10 etapas y ha demostrado ser una potente herramienta intelectual para el estudio y el entendimiento del comportamiento de situaciones sociales problemáticas complejas en términos dinámicos a través del tiempo. Al final se mencionan algunas conclusiones y puntos de aprendizaje desde los puentos de vista teórico y práctico

Palabras Clave: Metodología Blanda de Sistemas (MBS), Dinámica de Sistemas (DS), Peru, Situaciones Problemáticas Complejas, Metodología Blanda de Dinámica de Sistemas (MBDS)


Citations and the Zipf-Mandelbrot's law

Z.K. Silagadze
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
630 090 Novosibirsk, Russia

A curious observation was made that the rank statistics of scientific citation numbers follows Zipf-Mandelbrot's law. The same pow-like behavior is exhibited by some simple random citation models. So, the observed regularity indicates not so much the peculiar character of the underlying (complex) process, but more likely, than it is usually assumed, its more stochastic nature.

The same distributions were found for female and male first name frequencies.

So scientific citations (leaving aside first name frequencies) provides one more example of Zipf-Mandelbrot's regularity, which was encountered earlier in wildly different areas (after this paper was completed, I have learned that the Zipf's distribution in scientific citations was discovered
in fact earlier by S.Redner, Eur. Phys. J. B4 (1998), 131.) I do not know whether this fact indicates only to significant stochastic nature of the citation process or to something else. In any case SPIRES, and the World Wide Web in general, gives us an excellent opportunity to study the characteristics of the complex process of scientific citations.

I do not know either whether Mandelbrot's parameters are meaningful in this case (they proved to be useful, for example, in ecology), and if they can tell us something non-trivial about the citation process.

Two different approaches to the explanation of Zipf's law is very well summarized in G.Miller's introduction to the 1965 edition of Zipf's book: ``Faced with this massive statistical regularity, you have two alternatives. Either you can assume that it reflects some universal property of human mind, or you can assume that it reflects some necessary consequence of the laws of probabilities''. The debate is still not over. ``Zipf's law remains essentially unexplained'' -- M.Gell-Mann concludes in his book ``The Quark and the Jaguar''.

The very generality of the Zipf-Mandelbrot's regularity can make it rather ``shallow''. But remember, that the originality of answers on the question of whether there is something serious behind the Zipf-Mandelbrot's law depends how restrictive frameworks we assume for the answer. Shallow framework will probably guarantee shallow answers. But if we do not restrict our imagination from the beginning, answers can turn out to be quite non-trivial. For example, fractals and self-similarity, which were used in Mandelbrot's answer to the question, are certainly great and not shallow ideas.

The Y2KmPhenomenon and its Implications

Adam D. Sundel, Martin Sundel
Public Utility Commission of Texas
1701 N. Congress
Austin, Texas 78701

This paper addresses a timely issue related to business and other organizational operations and the well-being of society. The Year 2000 Problem, or Y2K, is one of the most talked about and widely debated issues today. This paper will examine Y2K from a business applications and metamodeling standpoint and will explore the ways in which Y2K may affect systems ranging from the individual all the way through to global conglomerates.

Technology has not always developed in ways that adequately consider its impact on human and social systems. Failure to foresee the dynamic and evolutionary aspects of technology has resulted in an environment that has surpassed the boundaries of technology. This limited vision creates problems that are exacerbated when systems are integrated or exposed to whole system environments.

This paper will analyze the Y2K problem and its impact on business organizations and social systems. Metalevel issues related to design and decision making are considered. The implications of this problem for societal functioning and well-being will be explored.

Keywords: Y2K, technology and environment, well-being, systems integration, levels of inquiry

The Shape of the Curve

Sander Rubin
2032 Gauguin Place
Davis, CA 95616-0542

After a life-time career practicing and teaching a systems approach steeped in mathematical analysis, model-making, and writing texts, C. West Churchman wrote The Systems Approach and its Enemies. It was not a refutation of the objective disciplines of the classical systems approach, but Churchman’s final orientation explored the limits of the mathematical tools and connected to real systems by giving credit to its “enemies”: politics, morality, religion, and aesthetics. The humanistic side of systems analysis led Churchman to make connections with Jungian archetypes, the I Ching, synchronicity and the individuation of people as they grow older.
This paper draws from Churchman’s late insights and presents a case study in the analysis of a contemporary problem: Why has Alan Greenspan’s reduction in the unemployment rate not caused a higher inflation rate in increased prices as predicted by conventional economic models? Why has it taken some 30 years to stumble into a policy that could have enriched our society had it been heard when first discovered? Does this case tell us something important about how to reform economics from a mathematical discipline to a truly scientific one?
The conventional model of the relationship between unemployment and prices is that lowering unemployment will result in an increase in prices. This relationship is based on microeconomic theory and on crude historical analysis. But the theory of the firm or the household simply does not extend directly to the behavior of the society or of the whole system. The correct relationship, which can be verified both by history and by a more comprehensive model, is described by a three-part curve with a central portion with a positive slope. That this reversal of slope has not yet been recognized by policy-makers has resulted in seriously counterproductive policies at great cost.
The three-part curve describes three distinct phases of an economy. At sufficiently low unemployment (in the neighborhood of 2%), prices do increase through the shortage of the factors of production. At sufficiently high unemployment (upwards of 10%), prices decline as unemployment increases through the operation of marginal-cost pricing in the face of inadequate demand induced by the unemployed and the fearful. But between those two points, the relationship is one where a decrease in unemployment actually causes a decrease in prices as productivity is enhanced as greater demand calls for greater production with fixed costs spread over more units thus lowering unit costs . The point at which an optimum economy should operate is at the cusp of the transition from the negative sloping over-employment portion of the curve to the positive-sloping intermediate portion. This point corresponds to the “natural rate of unemployment” (known by the acronym NAIRU). Operating near this point also has social effects that enhance the quality of life of the society. The techniques for stabilizing an economy at such an inherently unstable point may be adapted from electrical engineering and control system theory. A fuller qualitative explanation of this three-phase regime constitutes the main focus of this paper in the manner of the conventional systems approach: mathematical models, explanatory diagrams, and quantitative concepts (if not numeric precision).
But the larger system, in the spirit of West Churchman, includes values and personal experiences that fall outside the conventional systems approach techniques. Politics, morality, serendipity, synchronicity, and anecdote are need to explain why the model comes to attention at this time, so late in the 20th century. The paper concludes with a brief memoir that, I hope, will suggest new ways of dealing with social problems systematically and scientifically. The memoir ponders the synchronicity of a year (1953-4) under the tutorship of A.W.H. (Bill) Phillips, whose curve sparked interest in the employment-price level relation, and two years (1997-8) of conversations with Glenn E. Burress, who clarified for me the many doubts I had about the turn taken by economists since that experience at the London School of Economics with Phillips.

Complement plots display Mandala-like patterns in human heart beats

Hector Sabelli
Chicago Center for Creative Development
2400 Lakeview, Chicago, Illinois, 60614 U.S.A.

A surprising pattern of concentric rings is found in the timing of human cardiac beats using a new and simple method to analyze time series. Cardiac timing is measured by the interval between R waves in the electrocardiogram (in integer units of 7.8125 milliseconds). Complement plots are created by calculating the sine and cosine of each term in the time series, plotting them in XY, and connecting each successive point to represent transitions. The types of transition, and their relative frequency, can be quantified. Plots of digits generate chords of 10 different lengths, that denote transitions between similars and partial opposites, and exclude orthogonal and linear opposites. In plots of cardiac beat intervals, most transitions belong to a subset of these 10 types.

The patterns are distorted or absent in persons with severe cardiac illness, and exaggeratedly regular in persons with coronary artery disease. or with major depressive disorder. The cardiac pattern is also absent in some psychotics. These changes in subjects with psychological dysfunction stress the importance of neural regulation in determining the timing of cardiac action.

Integer biotic series generated with the process equation At+1 = At + gt * sinAt [Kauffman and Sabelli, Cybernetics and Systems 1998] generate the same Mandala pattern of concentric rings [Sabelli and Kauffman, This Meeting]. No such patterns obtain with random series, digits, Brownian random walks, pink noise, chaotic series, simple periodic series, or a number of time series of other empirical processes.

Finding an archetypal form in cardiac timing is particularly interesting. Heart rate variation is vital; regularity predicts cardiac illness, and extreme regularity predicts imminent death. Heart rate variations also portray emotions and interactions with the environment. Circular pattern has long been recognized as cosmic form and psychological archetype. Action is the substrate of all processes, so temporal and spatial form (rather than composition) determine quality and identity. Forms are mathematical entities. Mathematical relations are necessary and hence embodied in physical entities (“cosmic forms”) including psychobiological processes (Jungian archetypes). The generation of concentric ring patterns by both human hearts and an iterative equation that models bipolar (positive and negative) feedback points to the vital dialectic of complementary opposites -the central thesis of process theory since the Greek origins of science. Sine and cosine are paradigmatic of complementary opposites.

Integrity, Entropy, Emergy, Gaussian Bubbles

James N Rose
Ceptual Institute
1271 Bronco Circle Minden NV 89423

In order to understand the “general” dynamics of systems which are obviously Hebbian by nature - assemblies of assemblies - it is necessary to evaluate how systems interact and nest. In other words, we have to recognize that process-rule examples (aka “systems”) interact with other “PRE”s, and that our task is essentially to discovery how a “rule” interacts with other examples of itself, and by doing so create “product systems” which were pre-coded in the behavior and option spaces of the components and subsequent assemblies.

“Product systems” bring with them their own behavior spaces at the next meta-level, and therefore, what we have are a plurality of peer and meta Gaussian Bubbles, in processes of constant interaction and thus ordered state-changes and interaction potential changes.

This paper will revisit the effort to re-define and clarify characteristics of a generic
concept of Entropy. It shall:

1) examine process mechanisms that coincide with entropic/negentropic behaviors of swarms of gaussian bubbles, with a discussion of the Aleph-graph ... an alternative interpretation of
2) coordinate the “emergy” system of Howard Odum with the author’s own “Integrity Paradigm”,
3) look at behavior markers which entropic processes have, see where they can be reasonably applied, and project what forms they can take, and
4) discuss the relationship of entropy mechanisms in regard to behaviors available in systems’ option spaces -- with Evolution being the tendency of organic systems to expand behavior options, and so be a tendency towards complexity and improved competence in current and future environments.

BIOS: Creative Organization Beyond Chaos

Hector Sabelli and Louis Kauffman
Chicago Center for Creative Development and University of Illinois at Chicago
2400 Lakeview, Chicago, Illinois, 60614 USA

Bios is a new type of organization characterized by the continual generation of novel patterns. Bios thus provides a new concept regarding physiological regulation and creative evolution. Different types of biotic patterns have been found in physiological and economic time series, and can be generated by the process equation At+1 = At + gt * sinAt that models the diversity of positive and negative interactions to be expected from the environment [Kauffman and Sabelli, Cybernetics and Systems 1998].

Biotic series appear erratic and random, but they are patterned, can be generated deterministically, and show high correlation between consecutive members. As chaos, bios displays sensitive dependence on initial conditions, fractal structure, and the presence of periodic orbits. Bios is distinguished from chaos by its creative features: temporal patterning, novelty, complexity, diversity, and asymmetry. Bios is composed of time-limited patterns detected by recurrence and wavelet plots similar to those obtaining for pink noise, in contrast to stationary random, periodic and chaotic patterns. Biotic series have recurrence rates lower than their randomized surrogates, an operational definition of novelty --periodic order implies recurrence, and chaotic series have the same recurrence as their shuffled copies. The time series of differences between consecutive members of a biotic series is chaotic, indicating a complexity of patterning not observable in random or chaotic series. Likewise the diversity of time series generated by differencing repeatedly is lower than for the original series, in contrasts to white, pink or Brownian noise. Biotic systems expand their phase space volume, in contrast to conservative systems and to processes that contract it towards attractors. In contrast to symmetric random, periodic and chaos, bios generates asymmetric statistical distribution, corresponding to Pasteur’s cosmic asymmetry -a fundamental feature of natural processes.

Cardiac biotic patterns generate a pattern of concentric circles in complement plots (Sabelli Complement plots..... This Meeting). Equation-generated biotic series rounded to integers generate Mandala patterns similar to those obtaining when . These Mandalas include 6 of the 10 elementary transitions. Chaotic processes generate partial circles; the time series turns into a biotic Mandala when the circle of opposites is closed.

When the feedback gain gt is a linear (At+1 = At + j * t * sinAt) or sinusoidal function of time, the equation generates “lifeforms” that evolve from one “egg” through a cascade of partitions into bios, and end by infinitation. In the complex plane, numerical series generated by orthogonal process equations display fractal organic patterns. The emergence of periodic, chaotic, biotic and organic patterns exemplifies and instantiates the process theory concept of co-creation of novel, complex and diverse patterns by the interaction of opposites [Sabelli, Union of Opposites, 1989; J. Mind and behavior, 1997; Systems Research and Behavioral Sciences 1998]. Whereas determined unpredictability defines chaos, determined novelty defines bios. The dialectic of complementary opposites determines novelty, and may account for creative evolution without resorting to random accident or supernatural intervention.

Biotic Patterns of Economic Processes:
Beyond Equilibrium, Chaos, and Uncertainty

Arthur Sugerman, Hector Sabelli and Minu Patel
Chicago Center for Creative Development and University of Illinois at Chicago
2400 Lakeview, Chicago, Illinois, 60614 USA

Bios represents a new type of organization characterized by the continual generation of novel patterns. We here report that time series of economic processes reveals biotic patterns similar to those obtaining in physiological processes, and different from random, periodic and chaotic patterns. The time series studied include commodities (corn, crude oil, gold, silver), currencies (Eurodollar, Yen, British pound), economic indexes (Dow Jones Industrial Average) and purchases and inventories from small businesses. Non-linear dynamic methods (recurrence plots and quantification, wavelet analysis, chaos analysis) were used to search for signals of creativity (temporal variation, novelty, complexity and diversity). In contrast to stationary and symmetric periodic and chaotic time series, biotic patterns obtaining in economic series are composed of time-limited patterns (“complexes”) separated by accelerations, and have asymmetric statistical distributions. Biotic series have high entropy (denoting diversity) and high recurrence entropy (denoting non-random pattern), fewer recurrence than randomized copies (indicating determined novelty, a feature absent in chaos), Hurst exponents circa 0.5 (characteristic of Brownian noise), and wavelet patterns similar to those obtaining with 1/f (“pink”) noise. The time series of the differences between consecutive measurements is chaotic, whereas they are random in the case of Brownian noise. Short and long patterns were found to be similar. Likewise similar patterns obtained for macroscopic economic processes and for small business transactions, indicating fractal structure. Mandala-like patterns similar to those observed with biological data [Sabelli, Complement plots...This Meeting] can be obtained for some economic indexes (rounded off, and choosing opportune sample length) .

Biotic patterns can be generated by the process equation At+1 = At + g *sinAt+1 [Kauffman and Sabelli, Cybernetics and Systems 1998] that models creative bipolar feedback, indicating that the interaction of complementary opposites can deterministically generate novelty. The opposition of supply and demand must then be examined as a creative process rather than as a tendency towards equilibrium. Economic time series are trended (parabiotic pattern) as contrasted to cardiac beat series that show pure bios. Parabiotic patterns can be generated by the equation At+1 = At + g *(q + sinAt+1) where the addition of a small term q renders opposites slightly asymmetric. Large asymmetry produces instead simple mathematical catastrophes, just as large socioeconomic asymmetries produce social catastrophes.

The results suggest methods to monitor economic processes, and point to specific mechanisms for their generation. They will be discussed in the context of the process model of development as a diversification resulting from the interaction of complementary opposites, in which biological needs have priority while cultural symbols such as money have supremacy in determining socioeconomic processes.

Recursive Embedding, Quantum Measurement
and Uncertainty Principle

Igor Rojdestvenski and Abir Igamberdiev
Department of Plant Physiology, University of Umeå, S-901 87 Umeå, Sweden

In theoretical biology an internal measurement concept implies that measurement and computation by biomolecules are essential in explaining the evolution of living matter. The meaning of the word "measurement" is often described in terms of other words, like "interaction", "observation", "description", "computation", "encoding". In such a set the concepts are defined relatively to one, given "a priori" (traditionally, "interaction"). This yields an opportunity to choose different ones to be a priori defined. Each word is coupled, through other words and concepts, to a multitude of real world situations and, hence, produces a continuum of contextual meanings. We attempt to "play" with the definitions of classical and quantum measurement, and get a slightly different view of the problem of quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle and biological computation. We a priori define measurement as follows:
A. Classical measurement is measuring of \ M by M , i.e.

B. Quantum measurement is measuring of the whole of by M, i.e.
where denotes a system, that consists of the element M ("measuring device") and the rest, \M. We show that quantum measurement results in infinite recursion. The measuring device being part of the measured, the measured system becomes more complex as a result of measurement itself. This sets a limit of accuracy which manifests itself as uncertainty principle. Such embedding of a description of a system into the system itself is pertinent not only to quantum mechanics, but also to other branches of science from cognitive and language to biological science. This is what is referred to as a "meta-language embedding into language" in linguistics, or genetic apparatus embedded into metabolic system.

Keywords: embedding, computation, Gödel theorem, quantum measurement, uncertainty
levance to Biological Applications

Information Begets Color

Hector Sabelli
Chicago Center for Creative Development
2400 Lakeview, Chicago, Illinois, 60614 USA

Color-like organization appears to be a fundamental pattern of nature, because it obtains for the color force that binds quarks, human vision, and certain mental constructs. Simple models suggest that triadic structure and color organization are necessary consequences of change. Action is ordered (time asymmetry) and discrete (Plank quantum); hence the models explore difference equations iterating action At. Change in action At+1 - At = A implies information. Information is the logical distinction embodied in physical change At. [This dynamic and logical definition of information underlies and generalizes Shannon’s statistical definition].

Information is contained in both the combination and the difference between actions; arithmetical models thus imply an informational triad. The sum of consecutive members generates the well-known Fibonaccian growth. The iteration At+1 = At-1 - At generates a bipolar Fibonacci-like series --difference generates opposition. Notably, the time-reversed distinction At+1 = At - At-1 generates period 6. Equal initial values generate a group of three. Equal and opposite precursors produce a cycle of four. Unequal precursors generate a color structure, meaning a lattice composed of three pairs of complementary opposites (e.g. red and green) in which the sum of two primaries equals the complement of the third (e.g. yellow plus blue = green). The generation of trifurcation from difference appears significant in light of the fact that bifurcations generate chaos, period 3 and bios (Feigenbaum’s cascades), while period 3 implies an infinite series of periodicities and infinitations (Sarkovskii’s theorem).
These formal relations may also be physically significant. Energy flow (action), difference (information), and tridimensional structure (matter) are universal features of processes. Action is the substrate of all processes. Form and information, rather than composition, determine existence, quality and identity. Necessary mathematical and logical relations, such as quantity and distinction, must exist at the most fundamental level, even at the hypothetical origin of the universe. The generation of triadic structure and color organization by differencing in iterative equations raises the possibility that differencing physical action may generate triadic structures and six color systems.

Another fundamental pattern of organization is feedback. Bipolar feedback, as in the process equation At+1 = At + g * sinAt, generates biotic series characterized by continual novelty, differentiating it from chaos [Kauffman and Sabelli, Cybernetics and Systems, 1998]. Introducing delay At+1 = At + g * sinAt-1 generates trifurcation. Iterating differences At+1 = At - At-1 + [g * sin(At-At-1)] produces trifurcation, generating a beautiful braid composed of six strands that develop multiple periodic, chaotic and biotic patterns, and a wealth of other mathematical phenomena .
The development of color, chaotic and biotic patterns by the iteration of simple, presumably universal, mathematical forms illustrates the possibility and necessity of non-random, determined creation of complexity in cosmological and biological evolution. The generation of six numerical series with periodic and biotic patterns by iteration, differencing and feedback in equations again raises the possibility that homologous processes generate the modes of vibration of physical strings responsible for the color force. Less frequent than bifurcation, trifurcation may play an essential role in creative processes. Trifurcation has been related to mental creativity [Torre, 1995]. The trifurcation of light into color by the retina indicates the creative transition from physical oneness to biological diversity.

The AEM-Cube®.

Peter P. Robertson
Europalaan 16, 2408BG Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands

The turbulent environment in which companies have to operate today demands flexibility of a company - flexibility to adapt to the frequent changes. One of the preconditions for this changeability is having teams in which diverse people cooperate. The AEM-cube is designed to build such teams. It intends to help people understand their roles and competencies, teams and organizations, and to value their diversity.

The AEM-cube itself is still in its pioneering stage; it is an attempt -based on concepts, derived from ethology, cybernetics and complexity theory- to build useful applications for management.

The AEM-Cube® uses attachment theory. Attachment to human beings is well known (Bowlby). The attachment of animals to matter is well known from ethology (Lorenz). We propose to apply the latter to humans as well. The AEM-Cube® uses a continuum from “people” to “matter”-attached people. Individuals may then be 'scored' through the use of questionnaires, and represented on an attachment axis. Although scientifically quite tentative, in the daily practice of management, this concept seems to elucidate issues about retention, motivation and managing technical professional for example.

The feeling of security people derive from their attachment plays an important role in determining whether they will strive for stability or exploration. Stability orientation and exploration orientation may be likened to the error-controlled feedback and information-controlled feedforward systems of cybernetics (Pribram). Someone's position on this continuum may be plotted on an exploration axis.
The third concept, maturity or complexity competence, is somehow related to complexity theory. The continuum of people's capacity for dealing with complexity may be represented by a maturity axis. We build a cluster of items, related to leadership characteristics in complex environments.

The attempt to combine these three concepts in three axes seems to be the novelty of the AEM-Cube®. Although, neither of the three axis, comes straight from the field of psychology, together, attachment, exploration and maturity reveal us, as we experience in daily practice with management teams, a useful profile of a person. The attachment and exploration axes form the base of the AEM-cube. The third dimension represents maturity.

Teams can be profiled in a similar way. One can plot a team's average scores or the scores of the individuals making up the team. Team averages combined with individual scores give insight into the diversity of the team. Once the team's diversity is known the team may be coached. This may involve coaching the individuals to grow, with respect for their personalities. In the picture a management team is shown with the different managers plotted in the AEM-Cube®. The information is gained from self-scoring and scoring by subordinates. The latter seems to be of pivotal value.

The information obtained from the questionnaires is normed against a database of about 2.000 profiles and shown in percentiles. The questionnaire itself is build from 48 questions. Factor analysis supports the construct validity . Other statistical data and research to be done, will be discussed briefly.

The AEM-cube as such is a model, not a theory. It is a tool designed for use in the management environment of profit and non-profit organizations. Over the past two years the AEM-cube has shown its value for use in developing successful teams.

The case studies supporting the concept of the AEM-cube are all drawn from our experience in working with it. Several of these case studies will be discussed in the paper, as well as in the presentation.

Mapping of Statistical Physics to Information theory: Relevance to
Biological Applications

I Rojdestvenski and M.Cottam
Dept. Plant Physiology, Umea University
Umea 90187, Sweden

The application of methods and formalisms of the information theory (IT) in general, and Shannon-McMillan theorem in particular, to biological science has been a hot topic for a number of years. One major group of opinions deals with the notion of biological system as a quantum computing device, hence the information theory concepts are being invoked. The second direction implies a link between the information theory and biology via statistical physics, using physical description of biological systems and common for statistical physics and information theory concept of entropy.

We present another line of thought, which uses as a link common mathematical formalisms in different branches of science. We discuss the issue of mapping of formalisms in statistical physics to information theory using an example of canonic ensemble.

We demonstrate that a mapping exists between a source producing sequences of signals (termed "sentences"), and Markov process used in calculating canonic averages of quantum observables within the framework of the Handscomb Monte-Carlo method. We discuss the implications of such mapping and speculate that the concept of source uncertainty has a distinct meaning within the framework of this mapping. We also show that source uncertainty defined through the Handscomb method depends on temperature and reflects the critical behavior of the system.

We extend the meaning of the Handscomb Monte-Carlo method to become a general recipe for transformation from "configuration" space to "sentence" space. We discuss possible generalizations of the Handscomb representation. As a biological example we sketch a possible way to introduce pathway representation in describing metabolic processes in living systems. In a certain sense, any temporal evolution, if only it is describable by equations, appears to be a message in its own right.

Time rescaling and generalized entropy in relation to the internal
measurement concept

I. Rojdestvenski
Dept. Plant Physiology
Umea University, Umea 90187, Sweden

A phenomenon of internal time rescaling in systems with finite number of states is discussed in the context of the internal measurement concept in biology. Time-arrow of irreversible time (a difference between a priori and a posteriori) is often considered to be a central concept in evolution and self-organization. Internal measurement, therefore, must invoke internal time measurement as well. The difficulty is that in different systems internal clocks operate differently. One example of such time rescaling is given by the special relativity theory, where different time scales occur in different frames of reference. We discuss another example of the phenomenon of time rescaling in a model stochastic system with finite number of states. Our concept is based on the fact that any truly internal measuring device within the system, including an internal clock, must be based on the internal states of the system. The contradiction here appears also at the level of interference of different levels of description, where time intervals that proceed without changing the internal state of the system would collapse in the internal time measurement, causing an overall slowdown of the internal clock compared to the "global" one. We give examples of several probability distributions that lead to time rescaling, and we show the correspondence between the time rescaling parameter and entropy of the system. It turns out that the state with maximal entropy corresponds to minimization of the internal clock rescaling. A connection between time rescaling and generalized statistics is discussed. Numerical examples are presented for a simple model system, that show correspondence between the entropy values and time rescaling parameter. We also discuss relevance of this phenomenon to different realistic situations.

A Systemic Analysis of Research Assessment in UK Universities

Lawrie Reavill
Management Systems and Information Department,
City University Business School, Walmsley House,
City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK.

The author has published several papers examining the quality assessment and accreditation system for undergraduate courses in UK universities, in terms of how these relate to the needs of the stakeholders who can be identified within the system of interest, the university; (for example, the student), the greater system of interest; (for example, the employer), and the environment; (for example, the Government). The conclusion was that there were some flaws and inconsistencies in the current assessment methods. The major contention was whether the assessment addressed appropriately the needs of the stakeholders, and work is continuing to identify the relative importance of the major stakeholders, their gains from the higher education system and their contribution to it.

It can be argued that too much assessment detracts from performance, by reducing the time available for core activity. However, it cannot be denied that such a system will improve quality, if only because measurement is being attempted and therefore attention is focused on the activity under review. This provides a hypothesis, for which there is a deal of empirical evidence, that the act of measurement focuses attention, and action, on those elements which are being measured. It is suggested, for example, that an individual employee will give the greatest priority to those aspects of his/her job which are measurable: for salary review, bonus, promotion etc. An extension of this hypothesis suggests that the nature and detail of the assessment process will shape the policies of university departments if there is perceived advantage in gaining a "good" result.

This paper extends the analysis to the system of assessment of research in UK universities. It follows the same basic approach as the previous papers of first identifying the stakeholders and their proximity to the system of interest, an individual university, school, faculty or department. It argues that the value of a "good" or "better" result is not merely perceived, but tangible. The paper identifies the elements which contribute to the assessment, and comes to some tentative conclusions. These are: that the measurement elements of the assessment system influence policy within university department; that these policies have outcomes which can be predicted by systemic analysis; and that the outcomes may not be in the best interests of promoting relevant research. In particular, where the area of research is related to technology, engineering, business, management, or any other area outside "pure" scientific research and scholarship, this could be increasingly disadvantageous as the funding of UK universities more towards non-governmental funding.

A Model for Doctoral Student Academic and Career Development
and a Proposed 'Jump Start' Program for Entering Doctoral Students

Elaine R Parent
4010-45 Porte de Palmas
San Diego, CA 92122 USA

A proposed two-year 'Jump Start' program for beginning doctoral students is described. The purpose is to provide the foundation for a systematic process of social and academic integration of entering students into their departments.

The need for such an effort is suggested by current research documenting a 40-50% attrition rate (over all disciplines) in doctoral programs in first-rate institutions in this country. Data available from one such institution (the University of California, San Diego) indicates that of the 40% of entering doctoral students who do not persist, over half leave the institution by the end of the second year.

An important resource for getting a students' perspective on the doctoral experience (and the reasons they give for their success or withdrawal) are the over 80 dissertation studies since the 1980's which have focused on this subject. Three of the factors which appear to play a major role in
influencing successful doctoral degree completion - and they are addressed in this model, are (a) faculty/student relationships, (b) the social and academic integration of the student into the department and (c) student motivation.

The process of doctoral education is conceptualized as the interaction between developing student competencies in three areas (intellectual, social and psychological/motivational) and the 'Three R's' of doctoral education. The latter are described as learning the rules, the roles and the relationships which determine how each of three component systems 'work.' They are (a) the discipline itself, (b) the academic department, and (3) the individual student, as a system of systems - physical, social and
psychological. In the latter, emphasis is on identifying and strengthening the skills, abilities and attitudes that are important in developing a personal identity as a researcher and scholar.


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Intervention strategies include establishing a self-monitored, self-managed online database and information system, for regular updating and review of students' developing competencies in each
of the areas. The purpose is to develop an information feedback system that can serve as a continuing source of motivational energy. It builds on the Motivational Systems Theory of Martin Ford (1992). The larger framework includes the Living Systems Framework of Donald Ford (1987) and the Living Systems Theory of James Grier Miller, (1978.

Money, the Third Commodity

G. A. Swanson
Tennessee Technological University

Today all but about two percent of the monetary value of economic activity consists of the exchange of money for money. Although money-information markers emerged in human civilization as a means to facilitate trades of goods and services, transmissions of these signals have become ends in themselves. Procedures for accountability and public disclosure of information concerning the movement of goods/services are well established. Those procedures, however, neglect to disclose important information concerning money-information flows. The neglect can be corrected by relatively simple changes in the procedures. Developing the political will to do so may be much more complex.

The means has become the end. The signal to activate is greater than the flow activated. It is like using 5,000 watts to turn on a 100 watt light bulb. We must ask the question this phenomenon begs and answer it relatively soon. Are such massive money-information flows required to sustain a global economy? Or, are we on our way to blowing up the bulb?

Answers to any questions that concern the relationships of money-information markers flow to other economic flows require that money flows be measured and publicly disclosed. The paper discusses a few reasons why the current system of money-information flows should not continue to be broadly ignored and a relatively short introduction to the types of money-information markers. Finally, one relatively easy means of measuring and disclosing money-information flows and one model for comparing the relativity of money-information marker flows and matter-energy flows are presented.

KEYWORDS: Money, money-information markers, commodities, economic systems, exchange-based societies


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