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Section T to Z

Edwina Taborsky The Hierarchies of Information Development

Edwina Taborsky Archictectures of Information

Edwina Taborsky The Evolution of Consciousness

Minna Takala and David Hawk Using multidisciplinary education to cross organizational borders - a Finnish example

Xijin TANG WSR Approach to a Practical Implementation of
Computerized Aids for System Evaluation

Miriam R. Tausner and Dr. Norman J. Bashias Ontology Of and Experiments With Distributed Models of Systemic Reasoning

Jaak Tepandi Auditing of Active Distributed Information Environments

Lane Tracy Is Gaia a Living System?

Lane Tracy Technology and the Evolution of Living Systems

Len Troncale A Mechanism for Emergence

Len Troncale Natural Systems Science: A Practical Plan for Systems Research Collaboration

Len Troncale Why 50 Years of ISSS Activities Did Not Result in a General Theory of Systems: What We Must Do In the Second Millenium

Len Troncale Placing “Stealth” Systems Science in the General Education Curriculum of Every U.S. University

Ken Udas A Critical Systems Analysis of the World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

Stuart Umpleby How the Year 2000 Computer Crisis Could Reenergize Systems Science

Néstor Valero-Silva Foucault and Critical Systems Thinking: Main Issues to be Considered for a Critical History of the Origins of CST

Alejandro von Siegler-Guardado and Eduardo Oliva-Lopez Transcendental Engineering - a Systemic Approach to Interorganisational Design and Manufacture

Donald E. Watson The Theory of Enformed Systems:
Foundation for Wholeness Science

Eric Weiss The Experience of space: Chaos theory and the Evolution of Consciousness

Elizabeth White The Wang and Texas Instruments Cases:
A 2nd Order Cybernetic View of the Corporation as a Complex Dynamic System,
Utilizing a General Evolutionary Systems Model

Elizabeth White Tree and Me: a 2nd Order Cybernetic View: Toward a Scientifically
Grounded Spiritual Practice, Utilizing a General Evolutionary Systems

Linda Wilder The Master System - Shamanism

Jennifer M. Wilby Epidemiology and Systems In the Study of Emerging Infectious Disease

Frederick Wolf, Eli Berniker, and Mitch Bloom, Organizational Temperature and Entropy: Some Thoughts on the Second Law

Fred B. Wood, Sr A Zygonic Analysis of the Possible Interaction of Spiritual and Scientific Processes in the Analysis of Maxwell's Equations for Electromagnetic Waves.

Maurice Yolles Viable Systems Theory and Joint Ventures

Zhichang Zhu Integrating Ontology, Epistemology and Methodology in Information Systems Design - The WSR Case

Mary Jane Zimmerman The Imagination As A Spiritual Path: Wordsworth's Intregral Way of


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A Mechanism for Emergence

Len Troncale
Chairman, Dept. of Biological Sciences
Director, Institute for Advanced Systems Studies
California State Polytechnic University
3801 W. Temple Ave., Pomona, Calif. 91768
(909) 869-4038 or lrtroncale@csupomona.edu

Abstract: A key contribution of the ISSS is the work of its individual Special Integration Groups. Their clear focus on a particular and specific area of research in systems science enables a synthesis of its literature, workers, concepts, and results. Without such focus, system’s work and workers spread themselves too thin to communicate and build effectively due to the vast span of systems research, methodology, and application. However, unless synthesis also occurs between SIG’s the overall objectives of the ISSS will not be attained. This paper reviews the output of 3 ISSS SIG’s over 3 decades for the purpose of unifying their results. The output of these 3 SIG’s amounts to many dozens of papers authored by dozens of capable past and present ISGSR members and they constitute a significant body of insights and results. Many of these papers exist in our past proceedings, but they are unknown to, and therefore not cited by new workers who have recently joined the ISSS. We will bring a CD-ROM edition of these selected papers to the Asilomar meeting for free distribution to interested workers. More importantly, we will present an analysis of the conclusions of these papers, as well as a comparison of their methodologies. We will focus on any consensus or agreement between the papers as the beginning of a unification of the three important systems topics, hierarchy, duality, and evolution. This analysis will continue with a summary critique of why the results of these papers did not become a foundation for future work in all three areas. This will be a detailed case study and example of another presentation at Asilomar that describes what is necessary to improve ISSS work toward a consensus general theory of systems.

Beyond this service to the ISSS in establishing both a detailed example of synthesis of past work and a computerized tool for enabling such synthesis, this paper will introduce a particular case study of unification. We will begin with a comparative analysis of several natural systems at very different scalar levels. This analysis will show what the different systems have in common as regards both their hierarchical structure and duality features. It will also show that one of the mechanisms in duality theory impacts both the formation of hierarchies and the systems-level phenomenon called emergence. The combined understanding of the mechanisms for duality formation and hierarchical structure will be shown to result in emergence of new qualities at new levels of scale and new levels of systems. Thus, emergence will be shown to be a self-organizing result of identifiable mechanisms that are testable. The result will be a system’s-level mechanism of emergence, that is, a new theory of emergence. We will then emphasize the importance of proving and further investigating the mechanistic theory of emergence and its limits. Arguably, the most important discovery of the nineteenth century was the discovery of the theory of evolution. But a theory of emergence spans a much broader set of natural phenomena than evolution. As such, discovery and further investigation of a natural theory of emergence would be even more unifying and important to a true understanding of living and non-living natural phenomena than evolution. Such work could improve the reputation, utility, and funding for the entire field of systems science in the future.

Epidemiology and Systems In the Study of Emerging Infectious Disease

Jennifer M. Wilby
Lincoln School of Management
University of Lincolnshire and Humberside
Brayford Pool
Lincoln, LN6 7TA UK
email: jmwilby@dial.pipex.com

This paper focuses on the public health concern of controlling emerging infectious disease (EID). This paper proposes that although the study of complex research issues (such as emerging infectious disease) requires the use of several disciplines for their adequate description and modelling, this is not occurring in practice in modern epidemiology. It is proposed however, that traditional epidemiology and systems thinking can work together, and through adopting a multidisciplinary approach, provide a more adequate description and modelling of emerging infectious disease.

This paper determines the contributing factors from EID and uses Boulding’s Skeleton of Science (a systems framework) to match the levels of disciplines in that systems framework with the contributing risk factors of EID. This shows that different risk factors require different disciplines to adequately address the occurrence of infectious disease.
An analysis of four national and international health policy documents is presented to determine the scope of disciplines to be found in each of those documents. Recommendations for the inclusion of a multi-disciplinary epidemiological approach are made and is concluded with reflections on the conclusions drawn from this research with suggestions for future work.

Natural Systems Science: A Practical Plan for Systems Research Collaboration

Len Troncale
Chairman, Dept. of Biological Sciences
Director, Institute for Advanced Systems Studies
California State Polytechnic University
3801 W. Temple Ave., Pomona, Calif. 91768
(909) 869-4038 or lrtroncale@csupomona.edu

The ISSS has been criticized for having too few workers focusing on topics that are too vague, without sufficient methodology for testing, selecting among, and promoting results that can serve as a firm foundation for future inquiry. This paper presents a plan for organizing the work of a potentially large number of natural scientists in advancing understanding of systems processes in both living and non-living systems. Because they are natural scientists, they already have the rigorous standards of defining criteria for good work, the methodology, and the testbed for investigating and making progress on understanding natural mechanisms. However, as natural scientists, they do not usually consider their work at a systems-level. We are developing user-friendly, computerized tools to link together what is normally considered separate work across the sciences. These tools compare the work on natural systems that are as small as 10-15 meters in diameter and which operate at femtosecond frequences, with natural systems that are as vast as 1020 meters in diameter and which operate over billions of years (and all that operate at scales in between). These tools provide an overview that places each specific reductionist-oriented work in its systems process perspective. Essentially the tools enable harvesting the output of reductionist work for useful “whole system” purposes. This may accomplish two things. First, it might allow systems oriented workers to improve the rigor of their work by using well documented results from hundreds of case studies from the natural sciences. Second, it would allow natural scientists to work in systems science without experiencing the negative aspects of this field which usually alienate them from systems science. While the tools presented provide an overview, they do not lose the power of specificity. The tools encompass dozens of specific systems mechanisms or processes, and allow investigation of hundreds of linkage propositions between systems mechanism. So the tools act as a “transform” or connector between the most general and the most specific work possible. The tools are graphic in format and so are easy to understand and navigate. They are easily disseminated and used by a wide range of the population.

Advances in understanding systems mechanisms in natural systems would not just improve work and bolster results in systems theory. It could also have a major impact on applications of systems ideas to human systems. It is easier to investigate systems processes in natural systems and separate the purely theoretical and intuitive from the actual (often counter-intuitive) realities of operating systems. It is very difficult to do this in human systems for several specific reasons this paper will elucidate. The transfer of proven mechanisms from the natural sciences to human sciences has limits, but also has great potential. Otherwise, human systems scientists are placed in the difficult position of advocating systemic changes without any real evidence for their efficacy.

Foucault and Critical Systems Thinking: Main Issues to be Considered for a Critical History of the Origins of CST

Néstor Valero-Silva
Research Fellow
Centre for Systems Research
Lincoln School of Management
England, UK.

This paper attempts at providing some guidelines for a Critical History of the origins of Critical Systems Thinking in relation to the development of management sciences and the modern working organisation. This critical history will be framed within Foucault’s method of analysis.

The first section highlights the role that contemporary philosophy has played in the development of CST. Then, a brief review of Foucault's general method of analysis will be provided. Finally, a description of the main issues that should be included in a critical history of the origins of CST will be provided.

Key Words: Critical Systems Thinking, Foucault, Management.

Organizational Temperature and Entropy: Some Thoughts on the Second Law

Frederick Wolf, Eli Berniker, and Mitch Bloom,
Nova Southeastern University
3919 77th Ave. CT NW
Gig Harbor, WA 98335 USA

Although it is difficult to operationalize physical laws as they apply to human systems, organizational systems are not exempt from the second law of thermodynamics. According to classical management theory, successful organizations exhibit homeostatic characteristics; the process of management constantly seeks to decrease the entropy of the organizational system. While limiting the entropy increase within organizations, such activities increase entropy outside the organization by a greater amount. Such increased entropy outside the organizational system can be observed as environmental pollution, social disorder, physical disease, including those related to environmental health, such as cancers, stress and emotional disorders including manifestations of rage.

As an organization transforms inputs into value-added outputs, energy must be transferred into the organizational system. This energy transfer results in a dynamic systems property, Temperature. As the time-dependence of processes within the organization become more restricted and severe, organizational coupling becomes tighter and fewer degrees of freedom exist in which to manage the system. Coupling is an important parameter in understanding organizational thermodynamics. Entropy, is a measure of disorder. Organizations seek internal order; formal organizational charts, narrow span of control and elaborate position descriptions all indicate order. The appearance of structure and order, not withstanding, organizations also are characterized by unplanned meetings, disruptions to schedules and other spontaneous events which demand management attention and are emergent. The frequency of spontaneous events is an indicator of organizational Temperature. Organizational entropy is made evident, manifested by the diversity of organizational members present at unplanned meetings. When multiple departments, divisions, and skill types are required to solve organizational problems, this mixing is indicative of the disorder associated with the organization and its situation.

The concepts of organizational temperature and entropy are consistent with notions of a zone (or state space) of organizational recovery in which problems can arise, be solved and the organization successfully continues to operate. When internal and/or external situations place the organization outside its recovery zone, successful resolution and adaptation becomes less certain. Therefore, the Boltzman Ratio takes organizational meaning and context when organizational temperature is defined. Thermodynamic concepts may have important implications on managing and organizing particularly with respect to how complex systems are structured and coupling is maintained.

Auditing of Active Distributed Information Environments

Jaak Tepandi
Tallinn Technical University
Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia

We focus on the feedback aspects of the information systems design in the active and distributed environments like software agents in the Internet. These environments have changed the way these information systems are perceived, designed, and used. As a result of redefining communication flows and power relationships, the IS tend to acquire more features of social systems. This move is well reflected in such systems as corporate intranets and governmental public access sites. The current information systems audit methodology does not always offer enough support for auditing from the social viewpoint. In this paper we first investigate how qualities of information systems emerging from their changing role are reflected in the contemporary IS audit methodology. An auditing methodology considered focuses on the following main issues: analysis of the situation, scope of the audit, the ideal level, compliance testing, substantive testing, and risk evaluation. Possible additional features to such a methodology are proposed. The principles covered are used in the project aimed at a public sector auditing of information systems in Estonia. The project involves three governmental organizations that will coordinate and perform information systems audits in different sectors on various levels. In terms of the social system design, the project result may be characterized as a purposive system with some heuristic system characteristics.

Keywords: Information systems audit, software agents, compliance testing, risk evaluation

Archictectures of Information

Edwina Taborsky
Bishops University
Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada J1M 1Z7

This paper is focused around three questions. The first question - what is information? It is energy that is 'in relation with' other forms or processes of energy. The establishment of these relations means that energy is capable of 'informing', which is to say, interacting with other forms/processes of energy. All forms/processes of energy, whether within the physico-chemical, biological and conceptual worlds, are filiated within a semiotic process that catalyzes changes in energy states to establish relationships between these states and thereby transform energy into information.

The second question - how is energy transformed into information? The basic postulate is that the universe consists entirely of codification processes that transform free or 'uninformed' energy into 'informational relationships' operating within hierarchically ordered, multiresolutional and interfiliated modules or aggregates of codal orders. Information is understood to operate as codified microstates of energy/matter and therefore, semiosics considers that all energy processes, independent of any consciousness or secondary articulation of their interaction, are, in and of themselves, of whatever scale and complexity -- informational processes. The semiotic transformation of energy to information is both a logical and a phenomenological process, and operates within both universal laws and local contexts.

Does information, to be information, require an anthropomorphic or ontogenetic consciousness of that energy as information? There is a difference between referentiality (which supplies the measures of codification processes) and metareferentiality (which supplies an objective measurement or means of referring to that referential codification). Is metareferentiality necessary for the transformation of energy to information? My answer is that it is - but, is it a factor of ontogenetic processes, ie, operative within the phenomenology of the individual, or can it be subsumed, and operative only within the phylogeny, within the logical habitus of the species? Can metareferentiality operate as a factor of pragmatics, of the Aristotelian final cause and therefore, are there different types of consciousness - a local and a universal, a current and a future-oriented, a psychological and a logical?

The hypothesis of this paper is that the transformation of energy to information is an active process that catalyzes changes in energy state at every level of organization, irregardless of symbolic consciousness, and that it necessarily operates within an infinite, non-teleological, future-oriented or pragmatic evolutionary process.

The Hierarchies of Information Development

Edwina Taborsky
Bishops University
Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada J1M 1Z7

The basic postulate of this paper is that all of life is an architectural filiation of energy, an interwoven process which includes not merely atoms and molecules, but all the more complex forms of energy, such as plants and animals, human beings and societies. Energy has only one desire -to exist- in any form whatsoever. In order to exist, energy must be information; it must be organized into packets of finite or spatiotemporal closures that are, by means of these codal closures, operationally related with each other. Energy must therefore operate as a semiosic action, which means that energy is transformed by means of codification and its properties of establishing integrated functions into information. Any and all existential realities are semiosic actions - a molecule, a proton, a bird, a human being, a word, a thought, a machine, the internet, a society. Semiosis, or the process by which energy becomes information, is not 'words about reality' but is reality itself. It takes place within multiresolutional hierarchies of architectures, organized regimes of knowledge that filiate levels of codification and establish informational relationships within all forms of existentiality - the physico-chemical, the biological and the conceptual worlds.

What is involved in this transformation of energy to information, to permit uninformed or dis-organized matter to operate as information? How does codification move an entropic action to a negentropic closure, capable of defining or informing or setting up functional relationships? What is involved in the emergence of aggregates of codification, which act not as mere sums of their parts, but as cohesive orders capable of functioning within both rule bound and rule generating interactions? What is involved in the emergence of codal orders, such as the genetic code or protein and molecular complementarity or social groups, that permits homeostasis, functional integration, information storage and reproduction, the development of submodules and aggregates, networking and bonding, as well as the development of unpredictable differentiations, irreversibility and the generation of new knowledge? Is there a continuous dialogics of both stasis and emergence within this semiosic transformation of energy to information, that connects sign-events at the quantum and biological levels with our species ability to conceptualize and communicate through the codality of symbols? Can we view the entire chemical-biological-conceptual world as an 'intelligent system"? And how do the so-called artificial processes, in industrial manufacturing, biochemical research, artificial intelligence or in social dynamics, actually operate as more complex semiosic transformations of energy to information?

Semiosics considers that all energy processes, independent of any consciousness or secondary articulation of their articulation, are, in and of themselves, of whatever scale and complexity, from the shifting of tectonic plates and the interaction of atomic particles to the interrelationships of social orders- semiosic or information-producing activities that are, as information, deeply and irrevocably interrelated with each other.

How the Year 2000 Computer Crisis Could Reenergize Systems Science

Stuart Umpleby
Contributed from ASC
Research Program in Social and Organizational Learning
2033 K Street NW, Suite 230, The George Washington University
Washington, DC 20052 USA

The various traditions of systems science were almost all founded during or soon after World War II. That social crisis led to great intellectual innovation. The world is now approaching another global systemic crisis -- the year 2000 computer crisis. Perhaps this crisis will reenergize interest in systems science.

Fixing computers so they do not encounter the year 2000 computer problem is now the largest technical project in human history. Not all equipment will be fixed in time. Many corporations and government agencies will cease to operate. Basic services such as water, electricity, and petroleum distribution may be disrupted. Understanding this crisis, along with its social, economic, and political repercussions is a complicated, interdisciplinary systems problem. The crisis will
probably affect everyone in the world who is in some way dependent on telephones, electricity, or fossil fuels. This paper will review several analytic methods and several models of social systems and will then use them to describe the year 2000 problem.

In terms of analytic methods, one can think of a social system in terms of variables, events, groups, or ideas.

Several models of social systems are the following: One can think of a regulator controlling some system. One can imagine a self-organizing system in which the rules of interaction might be altered, for example through legislation. One can imagine a society as a self-referring system in which awareness of some condition spreads, and individuals begin to react to the new information. One can think of a society as a collection of thinking participants, where this conceptualization combines the three preceding conceptualizations. One can claim that a society develops from one identifiable stage to another, and sometimes collapses back to an earlier stage.

In the process of illustrating these various methods and models, the presentation will explain how the year 2000 computer crisis arose, how it has been dealt with, what the likely consequences will be, and why systems scientists can make a unique contribution.

Why 50 Years of ISSS Activities Did Not Result in a General Theory of Systems:
What We Must Do In the Second Millenium

Len Troncale
Chairman, Dept. of Biological Sciences
Director, Institute for Advanced Systems Studies
California State Polytechnic University
3801 W. Temple Ave., Pomona, Calif. 91768
(909) 869-4038 or lrtroncale@csupomona.edu

Some ISSS members are interested in advances in systems methodology, and others in systems applications. But both of these cohorts should be interested in the output of the third major group of ISSS workers…the group working on achieving a consensus synthesis of systems mechanisms that would constitute a general theory of systems. This paper will review the significant span of 30 years of effort in the ISSS. It will analyze and critique more than 9 specific factors or forces that have inhibited the recognition and development of a consensus general theory of systems. Some of the inhibiting factors that will be analyzed include the following. First, the confusion and conflation of efforts in methodology, application, and theory domains that leads to results that are inherently un-synthesizable. Second, the lack of clearly stated and consensual “criteria” for recognizing a general theory of systems. This includes the reluctance to even try to find such criteria. Third, the lack of a “selection mechanism” for weeding out poor results and building on strong results. In the normal sciences, this is the scientific method. Despite the name “systems science,” it is clear that only a modified scientific method is possible in our field. However, our response has been to have virtually no “method of selection” at all resulting in an “everything goes” mentality instead of a method. Fourth, a general lack of standards that result in “rigor.” For example, in many fields it is required to cite the specific work of other investigators, to know that work well, and to include many dozens of citations of past literature. Our papers often have no citations at all. This should be unacceptable. Fifth, we have too few workers whose primary effort is in systems science. It is an unstable population, with rigorous workers stopping in and out at very irregular intervals. The most rigorous workers are diluted by others who drive potential workers away. Sixth, the field lacks a utilitarian “testbed” where strong exemplars are developed and show what solid systems science can accomplish. Seventh, the field is characterized by many fragmented professional societies that are small in size and mutually uncooperative. The journals can be similarly characterized with comparatively very small readerships. Eighth, the field has attracted very little funding and is very low in priority on the national venue. Ninth, the field has not achieved institutional or systems education critical mass or stability. Each inhibitory force will be illustrated by folksy anecdotes from 30 years of experience in delivering presentations on systems in 25 nations across the America’s, Europe, and Asia. These anecdotes will be peppered by cameo’s of people ranging from academicians in National Academy’s of Science, to Nobel Laureates, to Founders of new disciplines and professional societies, and to Director’s of Institute’s and even the National Science Foundation. Discussion of each negative influence or factor will be followed by suggestion of specific remedies that might counteract the inhibition. For example, the author suggested the foundation of SIG’s decades ago to provide more focus for ISSS conferences. Before the SIG’s, papers to each conference were loosely organized around a very general theme that often did not result in sufficiently specific research in any of the three domains. It is necessary to do this kind of systems analysis of our faults if we are to achieve future success.

A Critical Systems Analysis of the World Trade Organization’s Agreement
on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

Ken Udas
Rudolf Zellergasse 48 B/3
1230 Vienna, Austria

In this paper the international intellectual property regime as defined in the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is described and analyzed in terms of critical systems thinking. The principal analytical constructs applied to the Agreement and its development are critical awareness, social awareness, and dedication to human emancipation. The policy development process and policy products are explored relative to short- and long-term effects on various critical stakeholding groups.

A Zygonic Analysis of the Possible Interaction of Spiritual and Scientific
Processes in the Analysis of Maxwell's Equations for Electromagnetic Waves.

Fred B. Wood, Sr.,
Computer Social Impact Research Institute
2346 Lansford Ave. San Jose, CA 95125 USA

The term "zygonic" implies a method that has meaning both to religious leaders and scientists as is implied in the projects of the magazine Zygon: Journal of RELIGION & SCIENCE. In general, I have found that both religious leaders and scientists act as if they had brain damage such that they refuse to notice the new barbarians who are seizing possession of the higher order electromagnetic fields in the quantum vacuum flux that historically have been used for healing , to make new weapons of mass mind control and biological destruction. This may lead to World War III and the possible destruction of all life on planet Earth.

To start this analysis I first imagine that I am a Bald Eagle flying high above the Sierra Nevada Mountains looking down upon the different types of activities in Northern California:



The scientists who in 1882, i.e., 117 years ago substituted the approximate Maxwell-Heaviside Equations in place of the accurate Quaternionic Version of Maxwell's Equations in Physics and Engineering Textbooks which triggered errors in electrical engineering that may mean that the mythical Khanate of Tesla Technologies somewhere in Central Asia are developing weapons that may insure their victory in World War III. With my Eagle's perspective, I can perceive the potential relationship of work in the different fields, but I can't find the details. In the emergency preparedness row, I can't tell whether the Air Force is up to date in understanding electromagnetic theory, or whether they are using a security classification to cover up their ignorance of the developments of 1864, 1882, 1890, 1904, 1920, 1937, 1959, 1976, 1983, and 1992.

Three roots: A typical mathematical derivation of Maxwell's Equations in the 1937 era, 62 years ago, is described as follows:

First Order Root yields:
(1) div E=r
(2) div H=0
(3) curl E= -(1/c)dH/dt
(4) curl H=(1/c)(dE/dt+rV)

Ref: Page and Adams, Electrodynamics (1940), p.154

The above are the equations governing light and radio waves, called transverse waves or Hertzian waves.

Second Order Root yields: E = 0

In 1937 the mathematics and engineering professors when I was an undergraduate student discarded this root, saying that it didn't mean anything in nature. It turns out that in 1890, Nicola Tesla discovered that there are scalar longitudinal electromagnetic waves consisting of standing
waves going in opposite directions that add up to zero.

Third Order Root yields: E = square-root of (minus 1).

In 1937 my professors discarded this root, saying that it was imaginary and did not represent anything in nature. In the 1950's the Catholic Priest - Anthropologist Teilhard de Chardin claimed that "Love" was "radial energy." In mathematics the square root of (-1) represents the vector "i" or a vector ninety degrees out of phase with the real axis. This points the direction of research toward there being feedback shift registers in the brain which code data into a Galois Field form to generate a hologram in the "holofield" in the quantum vacuum flux to produce "consciousness."

What must we do?

(1) We must organize a task force to do advanced research on all three orders of electromagnetic waves.

(2) We must apply the results of such research to developing cures for diseases with the second order electromagnetic waves.

(3) We must use the third order root to develop climate change templates and ideal social order templates to help guide conscious social evolution.

(4) We must develop a dialog with the mythical Khanate of Tesla Technologies to organize a change from a Zero-Sum Game to a Win-Win Game as suggested by Hazel Henderson in her book, Building A Win-Win World (1996).

The Master System - Shamanism

Linda Wilder
Consulting Psychologist
The Corporate Corner
Suite 650 The Burns Building, 237 8th Ave. SE
Calgary, Alberta, T2G 5C3, Canada

Shamanism is the one philosophy that acknowledges the universal order of things as a master system. It is a system that is unalterable and cannot be redesigned; a system that is on the whole, static, but is forever changing - always in a tug-of-war for balance.

Shamanism has been around for at least 80 to 100 thousand years. It is long ago that the first evidence of cave drawings of Shamanic practices was found. There is evidence throughout time that humans shared similar understanding of how the universe works. Today, Shamanism survives on all inhabited continents despite western scientific materialism.

The principles of this philosophy are believed to be at the base of all systems including scientific, economic, social, political and health systems. Einstein’s scientific law of energy and mathematical equation, E=MC2 spoke to the inability to create or destroy energy - the basic foundation of Shamanism. Energy is neutral and it is intent that determines what charge it will have and whether it will be used positively or negatively. In health systems, at the basis of ill health, there is always a disorganization of balance that produces symptoms. Our economic system is a system of costs and resources, always out of balance and our political systems thrive on the disorganization of the world’s people and on the imbalance of philosophies.

There is presently a growing wave, worldwide, of Shamanism at the base of all religions and there are those that believe this Master System will help us move from an information age to a higher state of knowledge and spirituality as we approach Y2K and move into the next millenium. The universe is neutral and does not keep time. It is man’s intent that has put a number on the year 2000. That intent has stimulated a lot of awareness about how we are living. Hopefully, the crisis we are creating will cause a shift in our philosophical thinking that will affect our systems, moving us to greater universal equilibrium and balance. Shamanism speaks to sustainability and more ethical living.

The author is a certified psychologist and corporate consultant who has studied Shamanism, used it in her professional work and has, herself, journeyed with a Shaman on over twenty-five occasions.

The Imagination As A Spiritual Path: Wordsworth's Intregral Way of Knowing

Mary Jane Zimmerman
California Institute of Integral Studies

In his hierarchical scheme of the evolution of consciousness, Ken Wilber rejects the Romantics as being regressive in their desire to reunite with nature. He faults them for relying on feelings as a source of knowledge and sees the only path to higher consciousness as lying through rational
thought. A close reading of Wordsworth's major poems, however, shows that Wordsworth envisioned a sophisticated creative process involving perception, emotion, thought, and contemplation. Wordsworth's poetic autobiography, The Prelude, and his poems "Tintern Abbey," "The Intimations Ode," and "The Prospectus" show not a simple return to childhood unity with nature but a progressive growth of the poet's mind.

In his struggle to hold in tension the stimulus of the outer world and the creativity of the poetic imagination, Wordsworth is an early example of a more complex, relational way of thinking about how the self and the world are constituted. Wordsworth claimed that the forms of nature shaped his
soul and he traced a complex interplay between the development of his imaginative ability and the revelations coming to him from the natural world. He criticized the Enlightenment science of his day for focusing too narrowly on analytical reasoning alone and credited the imagination with the
ability to perceive unity in the diversity of the forms of nature.

Previous literary critics have not understood the depth or complexity of Wordsworth's thought because they had no models of complex thinking within which to hold the polarities he is dealing with. Principles of complex thinking from Edgar Morin's work, such as recursivity, the dialogic, and holography, provide a fruitful context within which to understand Wordsworth's accomplishment.

Wordsworth saw himself as a prophet for a new way of seeing which perceived the one movement underlying both the external world and the human response to that world, a way of seeing which would lead to, in his metaphor, a marriage between the human mind and the natural world. Wordsworth saw this complex whole as a process, a process in which the human must cooperate in
order to be part of a vibrant earth community.

Wordsworth's journey of spiritual development shows us that the artist's path, sometimes called the Via Positiva or Way of Affirmation of the Images, can lead to a non-dual vision of reality just as well as the more typical Via Negativa espoused by Wilber. Looking at Wordsworth's insights through the lens of Morin's model of complex thinking can also help us to expand Morin's thought in the direction of the transpersonal.

The Evolution of Consciousness

Edwina Taborsky
Bishops University
Lennoxville, Quebec, Canada J1M 1Z7

Energy, the basic force of our cosmos, exists only if codified or organized ,ie, extensionally and intentionally limited such that we interact with it in its nature as 'matter'. In this spatiotemporal state of codification, energy is information. Information is a codified microstate of energy/matter; it is energy in a state of 'informing'-- by means of relationships with other forms of matter.

This transformation of energy into information takes place within processes that cut across all modalities of energy organization. Physico-chemical, biological and conceptual codification all operate within the thermodynamics of matter/energy. The first law of conservation establishes the inertial or functional integration of energy within a continuity of stable codal properties to provide a stability of relationships. The second law or irreversibility promotes the entropic destablization of that integrated order into complex differentiations of codal properties. Energy operates within two contradictory forces - integration and differentiation, stasis and entropy. Is energy, as caught within these two oppositional forces, necessarily forced into actions of evolution to develop its capacities for both one and then the other of these binary actions? Is evolution a covalent and necessary property of these dyadic forces?

Evolution is the means by which energy, moving from basic chemical molecules to prokaryotic cells to more complex eukaryotic cells- increases its capacity to: functionally cluster its codes such that their codal actions become insulated against dispersion; diversify its codes such that a functional cluster does not freeze into isolation; differentiate its codes such that an entropic dissipation of one code does not dissipate other codes; hierarchically separate these codes such that each level is relatively immune to either the restrictive closures or dispersive releases of other levels; develop extensive networks that mediate and relate these codes and levels with each other, such that energy maintains its ability to reflexively transform energy into information.

Consciousness is a highly efficient means by which energy has evolved its capacities for both the stability of functional integration and the flexibility of diversification, without, importantly, a concomitant requirement for a lower level or physico-chemical and biological recodification. That is, consciousness is a unique means by which energy, using stable physico-chemical and biological codal processes, develops a means of increasing the pragmatics of both stasis and complexity by the development of metareferential code systems. The introduction of metaphoric codification within the actions of 'fantasia', the 'erotesis' or dubitando of questioning, of hypothesizing, is an extraordinary power that enables energy (not humans) to develop the telescope rather than undergo the slow evolution of the eye; develop the jet plane rather than the chance evolution of turbo-wings; develop artificial intelligence rather than Homo ultrasapiens. Maintaining stasis within the continuity of a genetic codal metanarrative while permitting entropic diversification within the aesthetic codal metanarrative provides energy with a highly efficient capacity for rapid pragmatic strategies of adaptation. Homo sapiens as the bearer of this unique property must consider that consciousness is not for the sake of the species, but for the sake of energy, and must accept that the true force of consciousness as an aesthetic and ethical force majure, requires a concomitant humility and responsibility.

Technology and the Evolution of Living Systems

Lane Tracy
Copeland Hall
Ohio University
Athens, OH 45701

Living systems can be loosely grouped into those whose templates are genetic and those having a charter. Cells, organs, and organisms fall clearly into the first category, which may be called the biological living systems. The second category consists of social systems, generally including groups, organizations, communities, societies, and supranational systems. Evolution of biological living systems is a “natural” phenomenon that has been occurring over millions of years. Social living systems are a much more recent phenomenon, requiring the development of language and communication. Organizations, communities, societies, and supranational systems have evolved very rapidly, often with the aid or impetus of technology. Now technology also threatens to change the path and rate of biological evolution. The aim of this paper is to explore the linkage between development of technology and the evolution of living systems.

The earliest organizations were limited in size and scope by the lack of ability to coordinate activities beyond the line of sight. Development of the telegraph allowed organizations such as railroads to become larger and more complex; railroads in turn made possible the development of larger and more complex manufacturing and retailing firms. New forms of organization emerged in response to such technological developments as the telephone, air transport, fax, computer networks, and email. Global organizations spanning the oceans and virtual organizations whose members meet each other only in cyberspace have emerged. Communities and societies moved from an agrarian to an industrial base, and then to a post-industrial phase in which knowledge and communication facilities became king. In response to advances in transportation technology communities developed new structures such as suburbs and shopping malls. For a while societies followed a trend of merger and consolidation, but more recently there has been a reversal toward fragmentation, with reemergence of many small, closely-knit societies. Technology initially aided consolidation, but more recently has provided weapons, communication facilities, and other means of support for small societies. This trend has been aided by the rise of supranational systems in power and importance, spurred in general by growth in communications and transportation technology.

All levels of social living systems are highly dependent on technological infrastructure. Without communications satellites, jet planes, powerful computers, steady sources of energy, high-tech health facilities (to control the rapid spread of diseases), and improved crop yields many of these systems could not exist in their present form. Advanced technology has created new niches which have quickly been filled by newly evolved forms of organizations, communities, societies, and supranational systems. Yet the creation of these new forms, as well as the technology that makes them possible, also brings many new problems, especially for the environment.

Concern for the environment has brought forth many proposals to limit or slow the growth of technology. Yet evolution of living systems is a natural phenomenon, one that both spurs and benefits from the development of new technology. Thus, technological growth cannot be viewed purely as an unnatural assault on the environment. Rather, we must consider the effects on all levels of living systems if we seek to control the development of new technology.

Current thinking about technology and the environment is often deficient from a systems perspective because it focuses only on biological living systems and their environment and seeks some sort of homeostasis. This paper will attempt to expand the discussion by considering the linkages between technology and social systems as well, and by viewing living systems and their environment to be dynamic and evolutionary in nature.

Placing “Stealth” Systems Science in the General Education
Curriculum of Every U.S. University

Len Troncale
Chairman, Dept. of Biological Sciences
Director, Institute for Advanced Systems Studies
California State Polytechnic University
3801 W. Temple Ave., Pomona, Calif. 91768
(909) 869-4038 or lrtroncale@csupomona.edu

This evening workshop will consist of a dramatic computerized multimedia presentation of the current status of the Integrated Science General Education (ISGE) Program funded by the California State University System and the National Science Foundation. The ISGE Program uses systems concepts as integrative themes to unify and synthesize the teaching of seven sciences (Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Biology, Mathematics, and Computer Science). In addition to teaching the basics of these natural sciences, ISGE includes numerous specific “bridges” that show similarities between phenomena of the natural sciences and key aspects of human systems. We will demonstrate the learning synergies obtained by using technology-based computer managed instruction balanced by face-to-face interdisciplinary lab and skill-training sessions. We call this a “hybrid” methodology consistent with the transdisciplinary nature of systems studies. We will demonstrate the 12 outstanding multimedia features, and the 24 effective learning enhancement features of the ISGE courseware. Stunning science graphics, intriguing animations, interactive learning games, and beautiful systems-based metaphors will be shown. The results of assessment of the prototype modules will also be presented (some of the data obtained from students at CSU, Monterey Bay, nearby Asilomar) and how an innovative use of systems development software more closely couples the evaluation results and associated changes in module design and production. We will describe the ambitious, international dissemination network that will be attempted by ISGE and how we are looking for partners in the process at the present time. The impact of ISGE on systems science research will also be illustrated.

The success of such systems education programs in attracting funding for both systems production and systems research will be emphasized. The ISGE program has attracted 16 grants and contracts, totaling $1.5 million, from a wide range of education, government, and private foundations. It has now expanded to two spin-off programs in standard science education curricula. These spin-off’s demonstrate how systems processes are becoming more and more essential to the teaching of science in general. They illustrate another way for systems science ideas to invade the conventional educational domain. We will relate the reaction of audiences to 45 invited demonstrations of ISGE in many of these United States, in countries of Europe, in Japan, Korea, and China. These audiences included many different populations of students, university administrators, faculty, government agency heads, and publishers. We will illustrate the talk with anecdotes that capsulize audience reactions. We believe their reactions are important to the ISSS because the ISGE is completely organized according to systems themes. The reaction of the audiences is an indicator of how the ISSS can achieve greater success in its work and in popularization of its message to education in particular, and the public in general.

Is Gaia a Living System?

Lane Tracy
Copeland Hall
Ohio University
Athens, OH 45701

It has often been suggested that the Earth or Gaia is a living system and that it should be placed at a level above the supranational systems. However, Gaia seems to lack some of the defining characteristics of living systems. For instance, is the Earth an open system “with significant inputs, throughputs, and outputs of various sorts of matter-energy and information” (Miller, 1978:18)? Does Gaia “maintain a steady state of negentropy even though entropic changes occur” (Miller, 1978:18)? Is the Earth “largely composed of an aqueous suspension of macromolecules, proteins constructed from about 20 amino acids and other characteristic organic compounds” (Miller, 1978:18)? Does Gaia “have a decider, the essential critical subsystem, causing its subsystems and components to interact” (Miller, 1978:18)? Does the Earth possess or have access to all of the other critical subsystems, especially the reproducer, that are necessary to life? And are the subsystems “integrated together to form actively self-regulating, developing, unitary systems with purposes and goals” (Miller, 1978:18)? The Earth is usually assumed to be the basic environment within which all living systems exist; if it is itself a living system, what is its environment? If Gaia does not meet all of these criteria, should some of the constraints be relaxed so that the Earth can be included among the living systems? Finally, if Gaia is not now a living system, might it become one through the development of technology? These are the questions that will be addressed in this paper.

It will be demonstrated that Gaia does not fully meet several of the existing criteria for living systems. It lacks a decider, does not process information, does not maintain a steady state of negentropy, does not consist largely of organic compounds, and has no known purposes and goals. However, the continuing development of technology opens up scenarios of the future in which the Earth might indeed become a self-regulating system of the sort defined as a living system. Restriction of technology development in order to “preserve” Gaia might instead hamper its evolution into a full-fledged living system. For instance, continued development of communications, computer, and transportation technologies may lead to creation of a world government that can make decisions for the whole Earth. Space technology may eventually provide a means of reproduction for Gaia and for new sources of inputs that can help to attain a steady state of negentropy within the system. This paper explores the links between technology and the potential evolution of Gaia into a living system.

The Wang and Texas Instruments Cases:
A 2nd Order Cybernetic View of the Corporation as a Complex Dynamic System,
Utilizing a General Evolutionary Systems Model

Elizabeth White
1500 Bear Creek Parkway, #1101
Euless, Texas 76039

Four fundamental questions about human organizations must arguably include: 1.) What are human organizations? 2.) How do they originate? 3.) How do they work? 4.) Where do they go? Utilizing a model generated by the author’s experience as a practitioner/consultant at both Wang Laboratories, Inc., in the early 1980’s and at Texas Instruments, Inc. in the mid 1990’s, this paper will argue that corporations are, in fact, complex dynamic systems that can most usefully be viewed as evolving human systems, i.e., as general evolutionary systems operating in an individually experienced but, to a degree, consensually shared meaning-world.

The model seems to clarify the deepest structural dynamics of "the corporation," pointing to, perhaps, very significant implications for corporate strategic thinking because of the following:

1) The model provides a "map" of the organization’s origins as an emergent/emerging system and of its possible behavior over time given varying constraints.
2) The model demonstrates clearly that the corporation is, in fact, most fundamentally, an information transformation system-a system that must continuously and, as accurately as possible, capture, transfer, transform, and iterate market/customer/user information into viable products.
3) The model demonstrates that the corporation is, at the same time, a human system within which rapid, accurate, innovative, information transformation occurs only according to generally well understood principles of human behavior, particularly regarding motivation, communication, planning, and leadership.
4) The model points the way to integrating past, present, and future initiatives, such as teaming, quality, and best practices.
5) The model can serve as a blueprint for "virtual" organizing and operational simulations.
6) The model illustrates the degree to which the shared perceptual reality, i.e., the "meaning-world" of an individual and/or group can potentially distort or enhance corporate decision making at any level.
7) The model defines the corporation’s absolute dependence on human society’s larger sustaining systems and points the way to a more humane, enlightened strategic thinking matrix.

The paper will discuss other important implications stemming from this "strategic alignment map" of the corporation regarding mergers, acquisitions, divestitures; innovation potentials, the criticality of
diversity; controls/regulators; adaptation; and evaluation using examples from Wang and Texas Instruments. The discussion will include a table comparing the traditional general systems model with a general evolutionary systems model, as well as three applications of the general model-for sales, for mergers & acquisitions, and for leadership development.

Integrating Ontology, Epistemology and Methodology
in Information Systems Design - The WSR Case

Zhichang Zhu
Lincoln School of Management
Lincoln, LN6 7TS, UK

Integrating a convincing ontological vision with a pluralistic epistemology into methodological guidelines for disciplinary and creative information systems design (ISD) has proved not easy. In the eastern context, the issue manifests itself especially problematic. Given the primitive, pre-scientific (mysterious?) outlook of eastern systems thinking on the one hand, and rigor empirical information science and information technology on the other, the intended integration appears immediately and profoundly challenging.

This paper presents an attempt, the WSR approach, to address and tackle such a challenge. Drawing upon Confucianism, Taoism and contemporary OR/MS experience in the Chinese context, WSR has tried to enhance the ISD process by incorporating a few facilitating insights, which are purposively reconstructed from ancient Chinese thought, e.g., the differentiating-integrating Tao (Way), the complementary yin-yang (opposites), the bubbling lis (patterns), the cyclic I (transformation), the spontaneous wu-wei (non-forced action) and the golden chong (timely-mean).

These insights have been intentionally deployed by ISD researchers and professionals to view ISD as an integrated socio-technological whole, to shape an ISD issue-task matrix, to guide spiral learning activity, to facilitate user-participation, and to indentify further research topics.

The approach has proved useful in some ISD projects in China. It is presented here to the FIS group and hence the wider IS research community for the purpose of mutual informing, stimulating and learning.

Transcendental Engineering - a Systemic Approach
to Interorganisational Design and Manufacture

Alejandro von Siegler-Guardado and
Eduardo Oliva-Lopez
(2) Silva-Mendoza
IPN, México

It is a fact that engineering has been trascendental since its very beginning, for it has always been a major factor determining the lifestyle of mankind and supporting his achievements. However, it has been until recently that top management has included the engineering function as an essential part of the firm’s strategic management, likewise, the trascendental nature of engineering begins to be acknowledged.

This paper aims to examine the way in which the engineering function trascends the company in both space and time, as it is involved in the achievement of sustained global competitiveness. Also, the authors depict the major elements of trascendental engineering and their relationships, as well as the factors governing its successful implementation for optimal corporate benefits. In this context, a good computational network appears as a necessary infrastructure, in order to support a suitable and flexible allocation of the various engineering tasks among the existing facilities.

Trascendental design and trascendental manufacturing are understood as two primordial components of trascendental engineering, therefore, an examination of them is also included in this work. A globalized and systemic view of the concept, origin, purpose, evolution and trend of engineering is presented, as a requirement to update its understanding. The authors believe that the philosophy and methodology of trascendental engineering are likely to promote and facilitate all engineering tasks and to link them properly with the pertinent activities of the company. Collaborative design and integration of goals are, for example, two important activities that fully benefit from this approach.

This presentation shows the progress achieved so far in this research work until now, and the authors expect to have some valuable feedback from the audience.

Viable Systems Theory and Joint Ventures

Maurice Yolles
Liverpool John Moores University Business School
Liverpool, L3 5UZ UK.

In management systems there is a notion that different methods and methodologies cannot be used in a complementary way or compared. It derives from what one may call the fundamentalists of paradigm incommensurability, who say that methodological complementarism is not possible because the paradigm of methods/methodologies paradigms are not only distinct, but more are incommensurable because they have different conceptual extensions, or if the extensions are the same, then they are qualitatively distinct.

There is a move to theoretically counter this argument. One argument follows the ideas of Habermass in theory of human interests that distinguishes between cognitive interests and knowledge. A development by Yolles that derives from viable systems theory and concerns self organising systems distinguishes between three analytically and empirically distinct domains: cognitive, organising, and behavioural. The first has associated with it cognitive influences, the second cognitive purposes, and the last cognitive influences. It is through the related use of these cognitive properties of each domain that arguments can be raised able to deal with the difficulties thrown up by the fundamentalists.

It is curious that fundamentalist arguments predominate only in the field of management systems, because they also have application to other areas such as strategic management. In this paper, we apply fundamentalist arguments to strategic management, and argue why they are not held to be valid within this field. Further, we counter the fundamentalists by apply our cognitive property remedy, and in so doing do two things: (a) provide a basis for the further development of a theory of corporate joint alliances, and (b) provide a broader systemic basis that enables both the field and management systems and strategic management to be coupled together under viable systems theory.

Ontology Of and Experiments With Distributed Models of Systemic

Dr. Miriam R. Tausner(1) and Dr. Norman J. Bashias
(1) College of Staten Island / CUNY
2800 Victory Boulevard Suite 1N-215
Staten Island, NY 10314

We are currently researching the distributed formalization and representation of knowledge based on a systemic framework, known as the Systemic U-Knowledge Framework. The distributed approach will allow us to take advantage of a collection of computers working to solve a single problem. In addition, we have developed an architecture for the distributed modeling of such knowledge, using automotive design as a case study.

To further our research, we find it is beneficial to develop an ontology to serve as a guide for representing this distributed knowledge. We will use this ontology to develop a distributed implementation based on the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) software system. PVM enables a collection of computers to be utilized as a distributed, concurrent computational system.

Once this ontology has been implemented to produce a distributed knowledge-based representation platform, we will then use this platform to empirically explore different ways of distributing the reasoning process among the computers in the problem-solving cluster. This paper reports on the progress made towards this goal.

The Theory of Enformed Systems:
Foundation for Wholeness Science

Donald E. Watson


Unlike sciences that can maintain the illusion of reductive objectivity, the science of consciousness is necessarily self-reflexive and holistic. Thus studying self-awareness, for instance, requires developing new scientific, conceptual, and linguistic approaches to
holistic systems. The Theory of Enformed Systems (TES) (Watson, et al, 1999) exemplifies this need because it cannot be conceptualized with the prevailing paradigms or languages.

We presuppose that a whole equals the sum of its parts plus a four-dimensional map that specifies the relationships among those parts in time and space. TES describes the origin. properties, and behaviors of this map. Further, it addresses the characteristics of enformed systems of all levels of complexity, ranging from photons to humans and beyond. Under TES, enformed systems originate with enformy, the fundamental, conserved capacity to organize, which is expressed as enforming--organizing holistic systems. Enforming creates enformation--order, or non-randomness, in any particular frame of reference. Unlike information, which is physical, enformation is prephysical ("spiritual"). Enformation fields in spacetime constitute prephysical entities denoted by the acronym SELF (Singular, Enformed, Living Field). SELFs, in turn, map physical systems--i.e., systems comprising matter and energy/mass. The fundamental properties and behaviors of SELFs account for life itself, evolution, quantum entanglement, and all the elements of consciousness, including self-awareness, memory, perception, curiosity, creativity, telepathy, precognition, psychokinesis, and remote viewing. Also, because SELFs pre-exist and post-exist the physical systems mapped to them, TES predicts
survival of consciousness and phenomena suggesting "reincarnation."

Watson, D.E., G.E. Schwartz, & L.Russek. The Theory of Enformed
Systems: A Paradigm of Organization and Holistic Systems. The
Noetic Journal 2(2), April, 1999.

WSR Approach to a Practical Implementation of
Computerized Aids for System Evaluation*

Xijin TANG
Institute of Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing, P. R. CHINA 100080

In this paper, the oriental Wu-li Shi-li Ren-li system approach is reviewed at first. Before the WSR system approach was formally proposed by Gu and Zhu at Hull University in 1994, the approach itself underwent a long evolution process in China. The first part of this paper will briefly review the evolution process. During the early 80s, the systems engineering experts in China began to notice the importance of Shi-li, the management and organizing techniques especially for social system practice. However, right understanding of Wu-li and Shi-li would not result in satisfactory
resolutions for most of system practice activities. Some pioneers began to realize that human effects played a very important when the systemic views were given to the Chinese culture and inquiry modes. Attentions began to be paid to the Ren-li (theory of human relationships). WSR system approach represents the systemic thinking of the interrelations and interactions of
Wu-li, Shi-li and Ren-li in system practice. Next follows a brief description of the essentials of WSR approach and its recent developments (various applications) in China.

The second part of this paper is devoted to the description of the process of WSR approach to a practical project on building a computer decision support tool for weapon system evaluation for China Navy. The concerned work in the project is seemingly a hard problem in comparison of most of other applications of WSR approach until now. However, the tremendous effects of human factors, especially the diversity of the clients (from end-user to top head of the project), the variety of disciplines of the project members including the users and the conflicts in benefits between them changed a hard problem to a messy issue. The paper will address the key steps for the resolution of the issue where WSR approach was applied.

Key words: Wu-li Shi-li Ren-li approach, weapon system evaluation

Using multidisciplinary education to cross organizational borders - a
Finnish example

Minna Takala(1) and David Hawk
(1)Department of Industrial Engineering and Management,
Helsinki University of Technology

There is a European trend in education which to emphasize crossing boundaries of higher education. Degree programs demand grossing disciplines and company recruiters search for multitalented graduates. Mixing discipline content means grossing intra-university borders as
well to other organizations. within a university and between other universities. However, organizational structures are typically hierarchical and co-operation within a university can be even more difficult than with outsiders. This creates a significant dicotomy, as well as dilemma.

A related trend challenges universities to be more open to their surrounding society. Industry-university co-operation is widely supported by authorities with co-operation increasing in the areas of both M.Sc. and Ph.D. level degree education. In addition, life-long-learning ideology has brought more adult learners to universities with widely different needs. New learning technologies
have provided new, efficient tools, but the change is difficult for universities and the challenges are great.

This paper is about research for a dissertation project that involves two multidisciplinary university units. Both are constantly crossing organizational borders within and outside their universities. Both find this essential. The activities of the units have became fragmented over the past seven years. There is more co-operation with other departments and other universities, e.g. common educational programs. The existing structure of educational system within these units is quite complicated. The design is based on emergent activities rather than careful strategic planning. Both departments have faced common difficulties in the management related issues. The challenge is
now to conceptualize, describe a model this operating system.

The study focuses on two university units: Department of Music Education at the Sibelius Academy (university of music) and Department of Industrial Engineering and Management at the Helsinki University of Technology. The preliminary results e.g. visual charts of co-operation
networks and description of educational systems will be presented and discussed with participants.

"Trigger" questions:
1. Should universities change their activities according to the needs of the society or the future employee e.g. industry?
2. How much own core content there should be within an educational unit?
3. How can you guarantee the quality of education if you are not in charge your self?
4. Are the departments too fragmented or out of control?

The Experience of space: Chaos theory and the Evolution of Consciousness

Eric Weiss
1708 First Ave.
Walnut Creek, CA 94596 USA

This paper will place chaos theory in the context of the evolution of consciousness by exploring the cultural history of phase space.

Chaos theory, or modern non-linear dynamics, derives its explanatory power from its ability to represent the behavior of a system as a set of numerical relationships, and then to represent those numerical relationships themselves as figures in space. The space in which these abstract figures appear - phase space - would have been quite unimaginable in earlier historical epochs.

This paper will examine the evolution of consciousness which permits the articulation of phase space. It will explore the perception of space in pre-modern times, outline the cultural and technological shifts which brought about the movement into the modern way of perceiving space, and it will place phase space within this larger evolutionary movement.

Finally, some implications of this evolutionary perspective - which sees contemporary chaos theory as anchored in a very specific and evanescent moment of collective conscious unfolding - will be explored. What does this historical anchoring of chaos science tell us about how it needs to be taught? How is chaos theory likely to stimulate and/or respond to further developments in the collective experience of space?

Tree and Me: a 2nd Order Cybernetic View: Toward a Scientifically
Grounded Spiritual Practice, Utilizing a General Evolutionary Systems

Elizabeth White,
1500 Bear Creek Parkway, #1101
Euless, Texas 76039

This paper will weave together and extend three thematic threads from three previous conferences: one from the author's 1998 ISSS paper, one from the author's 1993 American Society for Cybernetics [ASC] paper, and one from the author's 1998 Institute on Religion in an Age of Science [IRAS] workshop. [Author Note: Both IRAS and ISSS are affiliates of the AAAS.]

The author's 1998 ISSS paper, "Homo's Quest for Understanding Seen as Innate Human Spirituality," hypothesizes that, given the thesis in the paper's title, science, art, philosophy, and religion can be seen, equally, as manifestations of Homo's emerging/emergent potential for understanding, i.e. "mind," i.e., understanding/truth/meaning. This emergent potential for "mind" as Homo's emergent/emerging brain increased its capacity to triangulate 1.) the conscious physical experience of self, with 2.) Homo's experience of the external world, and with 3.) virtual conceptual objects, in particular, the virtual object "self," and, thus, to begin to gain the capacity to "wonder," i.e. to ask "Why?" as well as "to wonder at," i.e., to stand in awe, the author hypothesizes can quite reasonably be seen as innate human spirituality. Paradoxically, the author sees Homo's generic
drive to understand, i.e., innate human spiritually, as Homo's originating impulse for "mind" and, thus, for Homo's emergent cultural artifacts including science, art, philosophy, religion, as well as, Homo's full collection of virtual and physical conceptual objects.

This brings in the author's second theme, from a 1993 American Society for Cybernetics' paper, "Beyond Dragons, Copernicus, and Love," in which the author states, "Thought is structurally inseparable from our experience of it." The paper hypothesizes that Homo has the capacity for an individual member's having a "larger experience of mind," in which deeper connections suddenly spring into focus, perhaps from persisting, previously unanswered questions, and that this capacity of Homo Sapiens can be seen as an access point to "insight," be it scientific, or literary, i.e. artistic. The author attempts to illustrate this phenomenon through, the author's own theoretical organizational model and through her poetry. The theoretical "scientific" structures appeared very early in the author's organizational work, but in poetry form, indicating that individual human minds, if not tightly focused, can at times bring forth a larger, previously unsynthesized, framework or perspective through which previously unrecognized relationships suddenly appear. But, the author points out, that because an individual member's perceptual/virtual/meaning world can be
experienced as "real," because Homo Sapiens has the capacity to have experiencial or sensate relationships with merely virtual, imaginary objects, this "insight" can be false, having no basis in generally accepted scientific truth, for example, "Creationist" Theory.

The third thread, from "Tree and Me," the author's 1998 Institute on Religion in an Age of Science [IRAS] workshop, attempts once more to illustrate through the author's own theoretical organizational model and poetry her experience of "insight," along with the additional piece that,
for the author, the "insight" experience itself is a fulfilling spiritual/religious experience. The experience of this phenomenon seems to be, not at all magical or faith-based, but to originate in a capacity of unfocused "mind" and an ongoing scientifically grounded quest to understand how human society, and the universe that birthed us, works. The following short poem, "Tree and Me," is an example of scientifically grounded, philosophically consistent, "spiritually" accessed, art: I breathe the tree. The tree breathes me.

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