2007/08/08 11:45 Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, "Building Back Aceh Better through Reconstruction and Reintegration"

2007/08/08 11:45 Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, "Building Back Aceh Better through Reconstruction and Reintegration: A Joint Peacekeeping Effort", ISSS Tokyo 2007

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Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, Director, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Executing Agency for Aceh and Nias (BRR), Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Kuntoro Mangkusubroto

Speaking about the reconstruction process in the largest natural disaster over the last 200 years: tsunami

  • History of conflict in Aceh
  • Reconstruction and reintegration, now at an early stage, but progress is encouraging

First, will speak to reconstruction, then about reintegration in coexisting, finally have the two integrated together

Aceh at northwestern part of Indonesia

  • Coastal area 800 km
  • Area in conflict for 30 years
  • One of the poorest regions in Asia
  • Corruption worst than others in Indonesia
  • Western coast area, 3 km beyond coastline were destroyed by tsunami

Damage from tsunami:  

  • 120,000 houses, will be rebuilt by next year
  • 2500 teachers:  how to replace this, takes years, requires a fast program to upgrade, but since it's a poor area, no one wants to go there

December 26, 2004, then help came from around the world:  military forces from 35 countries

  • No diseases, no starvation
  • Cleaning only took one month, cleaning of debris

BRR was established as a single agency by the government, unprecedented, usually it would be a ministry or some agencies

  • 3 functions:
    • Restore livelihoods
    • Facilitate all players (e.g. 500 NGOs)
    • Coordinate and implement government projects

BRR coordinates  more then 12.500 projects, and implements 5000 projects

  • Scale of work $8.5 billion USD pledge, commitment of $6.1 billion already, compared to 30% average
  • Start from zero, hire up to 600 people within a month, then liquidate
  • New laws and regulation, when all housing documents, certificates washed away
  • Supporting local government, to continue reconstruction
  • Help of international community, but 500 NGOs each with own mandates, e.g. one to build houses, another for water sanitation

Trust of international community high

  • Needed $1.3 billion USD to build back better

Finish by 2009

  • Progress

Initiatives:

  • Fast track approval
  • Integrated team:  tax exemptions, visa/work permits
  • BRR trust fund mechanisms
  • Gender policy: to open and develop a society, women as spearhead for development, land titles in two names in husband and wife

Village policy:  each person wants ownership of their future

Accountability and integrity:

  • BRR integrity pact
  • Anti-corruption unit (SAK)
  • Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK)

 

Lessons:

  • Single agency with full authority, e.g. where to get things done
  • Agency with an authority to coordinate donor programs, and means to implement
  • State regulations to grant authority, e.g. tendering process too slow
  • Agency as flexible and responsive
  • Parallel processes, e.g. building road with house, if wait for road, it will be 6 months
  • Minimize bureaucracy, delegating authority
  • Minimize flag waving
  • Identify and promote breakthrough initiatives as standard
  • Developing local capacity

30 years of conflict:

  • Centralism and economic exploitation
  • Local aspiration of independence
  • Military operations
  • Local corruption
  • Not ideology or religion, may be easier than other communities

Prior efforts for peace

  • 2000: humanitarian pause
  • 2001 Cessation of Hostilities Agreement
  • All failed
  • Helsinki MoU

Resolved the root issue:  the political end state of Aceh

  • Trust-based relationship
  • Commitment from the leader

Helsinki MoU

  • Followed by implementation of law
  • Granted of amnesty
  • Establishment of Aceh Monitoring Mission to resolve disputes
  • Decommissioning of armies, demobilization of troops

Moral:  if you want to do something, do it fast

  • Humanitarians only last 6 months, then they want to make profits

Law on Governing Aceh has 4 foundations

Democratically elected government

  • Have to support capacity

Separate agency BRA, Aceh Reintegration Agency

Only 2 years after MoU has been signed, still have uncertainties